Citation and Plagiarism Resources on the Internet
From Grolier Online: Alcatraz is an island in San Francisco Bay, the site of the famous prison of the same name. The island was discovered by the Spanish in 1545 and named in 1775 for its pelicans (in Spanish, alcatraces). Designated a U.S. military reservation in 1850, it was fortified and utilized for military prisoners during and after the Civil War. It officially became a military prison in 1907, and in 1934 it was turned into a federal penitentiary, receiving its first federal prisoners on August 11. The prison was considered escape-proof because of its fortresslike structure and the strong, cold currents in the surrounding waters. Closed on Mar. 21, 1963, the structure stood empty until it was seized by a group of Native Americans on Nov. 9, 1969. They held it until June 11, 1971, in an unsuccessful attempt to gain government recognition of their claim to the island. The island was opened (1972) to the public as a part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.
Great Railroad Strike of 1877
From ABC-CLIO: The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 was the first rail strike and general labor strike in U.S. history. The strike revealed the tension between labor and business in the United States during the Second Industrial Revolution and led to the regulation of the railroad industry and better organization of the labor movement.
An American advocate of woman's rights in the early days of the feminist movement, Amelia Jenks Bloomer (1818-1894) spent most of her life working for the cause. She was also a reformer of women's clothing and helped promote "bloomers."
From Virginia University: For Native American children the boarding school experience necessitated their transformation from unincorporated members of Native America to participants in the culture of incorporation. For many, boarding school represented the first contact Native American children had with the outside white world. When they arrived at boarding school they were greeted by white teachers and missionaries who hoped to "civilize" them. Famous boarding schools like the Carlisle School (pictured above) and the Hampton Institute engaged in a brutal program of forced incorporation. The children, who were many times dragged from their homes without the knowledge of their parents, were denied the right to speak in their native tongue, call each other by native names, and were forced to leave the last vestiges of their traditional lifestyle, including their long black hair, at the gates of the school.
Child Labor in the Industrial Era
From the Child Labor Education Project: Forms of child labor, including indentured servitude and child slavery, have existed throughout American history. As industrialization moved workers from farms and home workshops into urban areas and factory work, children were often preferred, because factory owners viewed them as more manageable, cheaper, and less likely to strike. Growing opposition to child labor in the North caused many factories to move to the South. By 1900, states varied considerably in whether they had child labor standards and in their content and degree of enforcement. By then, American children worked in large numbers in mines, glass factories, textiles, agriculture, canneries, home industries, and as newsboys, messengers, bootblacks, and peddlers.
Dorothea Dix was an educator, author, and philanthropist, whose campaign for humane treatment of the mentally ill transformed American attitudes and institutions in the two decades before the Civil War.
The New Deal
From the American Social History Project: The New Deal was a turning point in the role of the federal government in the everyday lives of ordinary people. The relief programs of the New Deal altered the social contract, giving the federal government a much greater hand in providing for the basic needs of its citizens. Consequently New Deal programs provided, for the first time, direct relief in the form of payments, food, household supplies, and jobs. The New Deal also entailed a great deal of protections for consumers (especially in the security of bank deposits) and workers. The majority of Americans were extremely grateful for the changes in the federal government; some even demanded more radical changes. However, some feared that the New Deal would make people too dependent on the government; others called it socialism outright.
Henry Ford and the Assembly Line
The assembly line revolutionized the manufacturing process in automobiles and in a host of other industries, reducing the price of goods but also creating tensions between labor and management.
Industrial Workers of the World
Founded in 1905 by the leaders of 43 labor organizations, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) was a radical labor union. The IWW pursued short-term goals via strikes and acts of sabotage and a long-term agenda to overthrow capitalism and rebuild society based on socialist principles. One IWW organizer proclaimed that the "final aim is revolution." Though small in numbers because of their extremist views and tactics (its membership probably never exceeded 100,000), the IWW members, called "Wobblies," attracted national attention.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.
The New York City Draft Riots of 1863
The Draft Riots, a protest against allegedly unjust Union conscription during the Civil War, occurred in New York City on July 13–16, 1863.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination based on sex in education programs and activities that receive federal financial assistance.
War Protest Music
There is a lot to be said about protest music. Music can show how popular culture thinks and what is most important to the generation producing, singing and listening to it. During the Vietnam War music was able to spark a generation of protest. Protest music is essential to any major change that can occur. Music helped a generation to make change and end a police action
The 1911 Weeks Act created a truly national forest system, authorizing the federal government to purchase and maintain land in the eastern U.S. as national forests.
Welfare in the 1920s
As the economy roared following the end of the Great War, many people began discussing ways of spreading wealth throughout society and providing the means for everyone to have a basic level of services.