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Cover Art
George Washington - David West; Jackie Gaff (Illustrator)
Call Number: B WAS
ISBN: 1404251634
Publication Date: 2005-07-15
Examines the life of George Washington, a military leader during the American Revolution who went on to be named the first president of the new country. Presented in graphic novel form.

Cover Art
James K. Polk - John Seigenthaler; Arthur M. Schlesinger (Editor)
Call Number: B POL
ISBN: 0805069429
Publication Date: 2004-01-04
Chronicles the presidency of James K. Polk, discussing his policies, views on war, most significant contributions to U.S. history, controversies, and successes.

Cover Art
Paul Revere and the World He Lived In - Esther Forbes
Call Number: B REV
ISBN: 0395076951
Publication Date: 1972-09-01
This vivid account of the life and times of Paul Revere was first published in 1942 to great acclaim and a Pulitzer Prize. An elegant storyteller and expert historian, Edith Forbes paints a memorable portrait of American colonial history and of this most legendary of revolutionary heroes -- not merely one man riding one horse on a certain lonely night of long ago, but a symbol to which his countrymen can yet turn.

Cover Art
Samuel Adams - Dennis Brindell Fradin
Call Number: B ADA
ISBN: 0395825105
Publication Date: 1998-04-20
Presents the life and accomplishments of the colonist and patriot who was involved in virtually every major event that resulted in the birth of the United States.

Cover Art
Jamestown Colony - Frank E. Grizzard; Daniel Boyd Smith
ISBN: 9781851096374
Publication Date: 2007-03-21
Political intrigue, rebellion, starvation, cannibalism, conflict with Native Americans—all are part of the story of the first lasting English outpost in the New World. Now shrouded in legend, the story of Jamestown is part adventure, part gritty reality. This book provides a complete, contextual look at the true story.

Jamestown Colony is an authoritative and thorough treatment of all aspects of life in Jamestown, the first successful British colony in the New World.

Cover Art
The Essential Lewis and Clark - Landon Y. Jones
Call Number: 917.804 LEW
ISBN: 0060196009
Publication Date: 2000-03-01
Contains excerpts from the travel journals of Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.

Cover Art
The World of George Washington - Richard M. Ketchum
Call Number: B WAS
ISBN: 0070344094
Publication Date: 1974-01-01
The paintings, drawings, documents, maps, and memorabilia that illustrates this definitive biography were, to the best of the editors' knowledge, all in existence during George Washington's lifetime. They are shown here together for the first time in one book.

Cover Art
Ben Franklin's Almanac - Candace Fleming
Call Number: 973.3 FLE
ISBN: 0689835493
Publication Date: 2003-09-01
Brings together eighteenth century etchings, artifacts, and quotations to create the effect of a scrapbook of the life of Benjamin Franklin.

Cover Art
Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass - Russell Freedman
Call Number: 920 FRE
ISBN: 9780547385624
Publication Date: 2012-06-19
Looks at the lives of Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln, including their friendship and their affect on Emancipation and the Civil War.

Cover Art
Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass - Frederick Douglass; David W. Blight (Introduction by); Ernest R. May (Foreword by)
Call Number: B DOU
ISBN: 0312075316
Publication Date: 1993-03-01
This is a book that should be on the reading list of every course on American history or literature...with its excellent notes, bibliography and appendices, this supersedes other versions available in paperback.' Adam Lively, Times Educational Supplement This new edition of the Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass is the first prepared especially for American history courses. David W. Blight's extensive introduction and the related materials he provides place the Narrative in both its historical and literary contexts. The book also includes a chronology of Douglass's life, a bibliography, questions for consideration, illustrations, and an index.

Cover Art
Young Frederick Douglas: The Maryland Years - Dickson J. Preston
Call Number: B DOU
ISBN: 0801824397
Publication Date: 1980-10-01
Details Douglass's life from birth to his escape North and recounts his experience as a slave, his flight to freedom, and his subsequent return to Maryland as the national spokesman for black Americans.

Cover Art
Columbus and the World Around Him - Milton Meltzer
Call Number: 970.01 MEL
ISBN: 0531108996
Publication Date: 1990-03-01
Describes the voyages of Columbus, the terrible impact of the Spaniards on the Indians, and the ultimate cultural influence of the Native Americans on their white conquerors.

Cover Art
Christopher Columbus: Voyager to the Unknown - Nancy S. Levinson
Call Number: 970.01 LEV
ISBN: 0525672923
Publication Date: 1990-04-19
When Christopher Columbus set off on his momentous expedition of 1492, most people thought he was crazy - that he would sail downward and not be able to return, or would be devoured by sea monsters. But Columbus was not a man who could be swayed by public opinion. A master mariner, he was determined to find a water route to the East Indies, as Asia was called, ant to claim its fabled wealth for the Spanish Crown. In this fresh, dramatic account of Christopher Columbus's discovery of America, Nancy Levinson skillfully incorporates the most recent research, including the current controversy on Columbus's exact landfall.

Cover Art
Columbus: For Gold, God and Glory - John Dyson; Peter Christopher (Photographer)
Call Number: 970.01 DYS
ISBN: 0671687913
Publication Date: 1991-10-15
Lavishly illustrated text provides new evidence to reveal the real Columbus and the actual reasons why he embarked on what would prove to be the greatest voyage in history.

Cover Art
Andrew Jackson - Robert V. Remini
Call Number: B JAC
ISBN: 9780060801328
Publication Date: 1999-07-07
A biography of Andrew Jackson, president of the United States from 1829 to 1837, revealing details of his political, personal, and military life.

Cover Art
Biographies of the American Revolution - Michael Anderson
Call Number: 920 BIO
ISBN: 9781615306855
Publication Date: 2012-07-15
A collection of biographies of figures from the American Revolution, including Franklin, John Adams, and John Paul Jones.

Cover Art
Desperate Sons - Les Standiford
Call Number: 973.3 STA
ISBN: 9780061899553
Publication Date: 2012-11-06
Explores the role of the Sons of Liberty in the American Revolution, a group of British colonist that decided that the conditions under which they were governed had become intolerable and decided to take action, including Samuel and John Adams, Paul Revere, Patrick Henry and John Hancock.

Cover Art
Pocahontas - Tim Vicary; Jennifer Bassett (Editor)
Call Number: 428.6 VIC
ISBN: 019423746X
Publication Date: 2007-03-29
A retelling of the life of Pocahontas, who, in 1607, fell in love with Englishman John Smith and tried to help smooth relations between the white settlers and her tribe.

Cover Art
Thomas Jefferson - Carol Behrman
Call Number: B JEF
ISBN: 0822557444
Publication Date: 2005-01-01
Presents a brief biography of Thomas Jefferson, patriot, president, and author of the Declaration of Independence, including information on his childhood, education, and political career.

Cover Art
Custer - Jeffry D. Wert
Call Number: B CUS
ISBN: 0684832755
Publication Date: 1997-06-10
Examines the life of George Armstrong Custer, discussing his role in the Civil War and the postwar decade, looking at his romance and marriage to his devoted wife Libbie, and describing the disastrous battle at Little Big Horn.

Cover Art
Abigail Adams - Phyllis Lee Levin
ISBN: 031229168X
Publication Date: 2001-11-05
Wife of one president and mother of another, Abigail Adams was an extraordinary woman living at an extraordinary time in American history. A tireless letter writer and diarist, her penetrating and often caustic impressions of most of the major persons of her day--including Ben Franklin, George and Martha Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton, and King George III, among others--provide one of the best first-hand accounts of the American Revolution. This biography, researched and written over a fourteen-year period, is a fascinating portrait of a brilliant woman at the center of the founding of the American republic.

Online Resources

    A collection of databases dealing with all aspects of social studies including US and world history, government, and geography. Also includes how others lived their daily lives throughout history.
  • ABC-CLIO's eBooks
    Unlimited access and use eBooks from ABC-CLIO.
  • Biography in Context
    Contains articles from encyclopedias, books, and other reference sources on thousands of significant and lesser-known individuals. Sources include: Contemporary Authors, Encyclopedia of World Biography, Contemporary Theatre, Film, and Television, Contemporary Musicians, Historic World Leaders, Notable Twentieth-Century Scientists, Contemporary Black Biography, Religious Leaders of America, and the International Dictionary of Art and Artists.
  • EbscoHost (Student Resource Center)
    Contains ALL of EbscoHost's full text articles from popular magazines, research periodicals, national newspapers, thousands of biographies, millions of images, and over 100,000 primary source documents.

    Click on Student Resource Center for easiest navigation.
  • Encyclopedia Britannica
    The original encyclopedia! Provides current information on just about everything you can imagine: people, places, events...things. Also contains a thesaurus, dictionary, and atlases.
  • Grolier Online
    Grolier Online is an integrated reference portal. With over 55 million words, 50,000 websites, and several hundred thousand magazine articles, finding authoritative, age- appropriate and subject-specific information is easy. Users have access to award-winning databases, special features, multimedia presentations, an interactive atlas, dictionaries, and much more. Grolier Online provides resources tailored specifically for teachers and students, all contained within a structured and monitored environment.
  • New York Times and its archives
    Click on this link to access the New York Times and its archives. Access is only available from school, not from home.
  • Digital History
    A vast amount of information on American history is available here.
  • Gilder Lehrman Collection
    This website features more than 60,000 unique historical documents in the Gilder Lehrman Collection (username = kbeckert; password = Moultonborough)
  • The Library of Congress
    The Library of Congress is the nation's oldest federal cultural institution and serves as the research arm of Congress. It is also the largest library in the world, with millions of books, recordings, photographs, maps and manuscripts in its collections.

    The Library's mission is to support the Congress in fulfilling its constitutional duties and to further the progress of knowledge and creativity for the benefit of the American people.

Abigail Adams

Abigail Adams, née Abigail Smith   (born November 22 [November 11, Old Style], 1744, Weymouth, Massachusetts [U.S.]—died October 28, 1818, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.), American first lady (1797–1801), the wife of John Adams, second president of the United States, and mother of John Quincy Adams, sixth president of the United States. She was a prolific letter writer whose correspondence gives an intimate and vivid portrayal of life in the young republic.

  • Biography of Abigail Adams
    A short biography of Abigail Adams from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Biography of Abigail Adams
    From ABC-CLIO's eBook "American Revolutionary War: A Student Encyclopedia."
  • Abigail Adams' Last Act of Defiance
    WEEKS BEFORE THE CONTINENTAL Congress issued the Declaration of Independence in 1776, Abigail Adams penned a now famous letter to her husband, John, admonishing him to "Remember the Ladies" when drawing up a new code of laws. "If perticuliar care and attention is not paid to the Laidies," she wrote, "we are determined to foment a Rebelion, and will not hold ourselves bound by any Laws in which we have no voice, or Representation." Within a few years of writing these words, Adams did something that has never been revealed until now. She carried out a mini-revolution in the arena that mattered to her the most: her own household.
  • John and Abigail Adams: The Original POWER COUPLE
    The "power couple" might seem like a modem political concept, but today's dynamic duos are heirs to the legacy of John and Abigail Adams. Both astute political observers, in 54 years of marriage, John and Abigail's letters demonstrated passionate devotion to each other and to their country.
  • Abigail Adams: Witness to a Revolution
    Early in her marriage, as Abigail Smith Adams began to experience the long separations from her husband, John, that would ultimately shadow and shape their marriage, letter writing became a way of life for her. Her bursting heart often found vent at her pen.
  • Abigail Adams and Dolley Madison
    Abigail Adams (1744-1818) and Dolley Madison (1768-1849) helped expand the role of First Lady to a leader and representative of the nation. Each woman demonstrated great courage in support of the new nation and inspired others, helping to define roles for women in the new country. They also showed great understanding of the nuanced role of the first lady, developing the role into a representation of the enduring sprit of the nation.
  • John and Abigail Adams: The Original Power Couple
    The article presents excerpts from several correspondence letters between U.S. president John Adams and his wife Abigail Adams, describing their supportive relationship together. Letters are provided from 1774, 1776, and 1797 each showing their mutual cooperation in supporting each other's political and social standing.
  • Another biography of Abigail Adams
    From Biography in Context, another biography of Abigail Adams.
  • Abigail Adams' Last Act of Defiance.
    The article discusses U.S. First Lady Abigail Adams and her advocacy of reform for the property rights of married women. The author reflects on Adams bequeathing her own property to married women in her will. The article also explores Adams' import business and speculation in government securities. Other topics include purchasing real estate, gifts to her sons, and distribution of property after death.

John Adams

John Adams,  (born October 30 [October 19, Old Style], 1735, Braintree [now in Quincy], Massachusetts—died July 4, 1826, Quincy), early advocate of American independence from Great Britain, major figure in the Continental Congress (1774–77), author of the Massachusetts constitution (1780), signer of the Treaty of Paris (1783), first American ambassador to the Court of St. James (1785–88), first vice president (1789–97) and second president (1797–1801) of the United States. Although Adams was regarded by his contemporaries as one of the most significant statesmen of the revolutionary era, his reputation faded in the 19th century, only to ascend again during the last half of the 20th century. The modern edition of his correspondence prompted a rediscovery of his bracing honesty and pungent way with words, his importance as a political thinker, his realistic perspective on American foreign policy, and his patriarchal role as founder of one of the most prominent families in American history.

  • Biography of John Adams
    Biography of John Adams from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of John Adams
    From ABC-CLIO's eBook "American Revolutionary War: A Student Encyclopedia."
  • John Adams: Merit, Fame, and Political Leadership
    While John Adams has been viewed in recent decades as an archetypal American-conservative or an anachronistic founder wedded to European models of mixed government, many of the distinctive themes in his thought can best be illuminated when he is linked to the classical republican tradition. Concluding that disinterestedness was to rare to preserve a republic, and that ambition and avarice perpetually threatened to undermine it, Adams looked to those who desired fame to provide republican leadership. This is a 18 page article.
  • John Adams Get His Day
    The first lawyer-president set a standard for representing unpopular causes.
  • Another biography of John Adams
    From Biography in Context, another biography of John Adams.
  • John Adams slept here
    Discusses the popularity of former United States President John Adams. Details of the guided tour of Adams National Historical Park in Quincy, Massachusetts; Description of the book 'John Adams,' by David McCullough; How the biography has sparked interest in Adams; Increase in the traffic at the Samuel Adams brewery in Boston.
  • Life of President John Adams
    The article focuses on the career of former U.S. president John Adams.
  • John and Abigail Adams: The Original Power Couple
    The article presents excerpts from several correspondence letters between U.S. president John Adams and his wife Abigail Adams, describing their supportive relationship together. Letters are provided from 1774, 1776, and 1797 each showing their mutual cooperation in supporting each other's political and social standing.

Samuel Adams

A second cousin of John Adams, second president of the United States, Samuel Adams was graduated from Harvard College in 1740 and briefly studied law; he failed in several business ventures. As a tax collector in Boston, he neglected to collect the public levies and to keep proper accounts, thus exposing himself to suit.

Although unsuccessful in conducting personal or public business, Adams took an active and influential part in local politics. By the time the English Parliament passed the Sugar Act (1764) taxing molasses for revenue, Adams was a powerful figure in the opposition to British authority in the Colonies. He denounced the act, being one of the first of the colonials to cry out against taxation without representation. He played an important part in instigating the Stamp Act riots in Boston that were directed against the new requirement to pay taxes on all legal and commercial documents, newspapers, and college diplomas.

  • Biography of Samuel Adams
    Biography of Samuel Adams from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Samuel Adams
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Samuel Adams.
  • Another biography of Samuel Adams
    From ABC-CLIO's eBook "American Revolutionary War: A Student Encyclopedia."
  • The Revolutionary Gospel According to Samuel Adams
    How a leader of the Sons of Liberty turned the patriot cause into a divine mission. This is a six pages article.
  • Coming to terms with Samuel Adams
    This a 26 pages scholarly article on Samuel Adams.
  • The Revolutionary Gospel According to Samuel Adams.
    The article discusses the role of early American politician Samuel Adams in the American Revolution and describes how Adams acknowledged the role of divine intervention in American politics. Details about the religious nature of Adams and his conception of God are presented. Adams' conception of God is also compared with the conception of other early American leaders such as Ben Franklin and Thomas Jefferson.
  • Radical revolutionary Samuel Adams.
    Informs on the role of Samuel Adams, cousin of John Adams, during the struggle for American independence. His belief that the Colonies should be independent; How he organized the Sons of Liberty; His opposition to the British after passage of the Sugar Act in 1764; His articles condemning the Stamp Act in 1765; More.

Susan B. Anthony


Susan B. Anthony, a leading nineteenth-century feminist activist, devoted almost all of her adult life to social reform. As a leader of the women's rights movement for more than 50 years, she formed a dynamic partnership with fellow activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton. Together they focused primarily on advancing the cause of women's suffrage.

  • Biography of Susan B. Anthony
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Susan B. Anthony.
  • Another biography of Susan B. Anthony
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Susan B. Anthony.
  • Another biography of Susan B. Anthony
    One more biography of Susan B. Anthony, from ABC-CLIO.
  • Susan B. Anthony, Civil Rights Activist
    Anthony was convinced that without the vote, women would never achieve the political power necessary to ensure their personal safety, financial security, and equality in the workplace and in the home. Her achievements are all the more remarkable because they occurred in an era that was singularly repressive to women.
  • Ghost shapers in stilettos
    When Susan B Anthony was a young girl, she asked a male schoolteacher how to do long division and he said to her: "A girl needs to know how to read The Bible and count her egg money nothing more" That slight was probably not the first to provoke her into a life of campaigning for women's rights, equal pay and suffrage
  • A speech from Susan B. Anthony.
    Susan B. Anthony: It was we, the people; not we, the white males': a suffragist's bold argument that women deserve to be citizens
  • One woman's voice: Susan B. Anthony inspired a national movement for equality
    Susan B. Anthony did not play with toys or dolls as a child. Her strict Quaker upbringing and the influence of her abolitionist father inspired her to become a disciplined, reflective young woman with a deep belief in the civil rights of all men and women. She spoke out against what she saw as the ills of society, against the institution of slavery and in favor of a woman's voice in government through the right to vote.
  • The status of woman, past, present, and future.
    Discusses the status of a woman in society. How the services of woman were rewarded in the past; Women who tried to enter the professional life but failed; Declaration of the rights of women; Why the proceedings of the convention on the rights of women were ridiculed by the press; Woman's advancement in general; Justice voted for the woman; More information.
  • Women's Rights in America: 19th Century
    Building on the previous decades of work in the antislavery movement and on a generation of women trained as activists and leaders, by the 1850s, women's rights had emerged as an identifiable movement separate from the issues and organizations of abolitionism.
  • The Trial of Susan B. Anthony
    A source for primary documents related to Susan B. Anthony's trial in 1873.
  • Susan B. Anthony: A Biographical Companion
    This is an ebook from ABC-CLIO on Susan B. Anthony.

Leonard Bernstein

From Biography in Context: Leonard Bernstein was an immensely talented American conductor, composer, pianist, and educator who has made significant contributions to the realms of both classical and popular music through numerous concerts, compositions, recordings, television appearances, and classes. He was one of the best-known American composers and the first American-born conductor to regularly conduct European orchestras.

Ted Bundy

Handsome, articulate Theodore (Ted) Bundy did not fit the accepted picture of a serial killer. With a Jekyl-and-Hyde personality, he seduced women into trusting him and subsequently raped, mutilated, and murdered at least twenty women in the Northwestern states and Florida. He was eventually apprehended, convicted, and put to death in Florida's electric chair.

Lucy Burns

Lucy Burns.
[Credit: Library of Congress, Washington, D.C.; neg. no. LC USZ 62 37941]

Lucy Burns,  (born July 28, 1879, Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 22, 1966, Brooklyn), American suffragist whose zealous political organizing and militant tactics helped forge support for a federal constitutional amendment guaranteeing women the vote.

  • Biography of Lucy Burns
    From Britannica, this is a biography of Lucy Burns.
  • Another biography of Lucy Burns
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Lucy Burns.
  • Biography of Lucy Burns
    One more biography of Lucy Burns
  • The National Woman's Party
    Article on the National Woman's Party (NWP), a radical women's group, worked for passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.
  • We Will Fight for You!
    The article discusses the significance of the radical British suffrage movement organization the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) upon the global fight for female suffrage during the 20th century. It examines the efforts of British suffragists, also known as suffragettes, such as Emmeline Pankhurst, and the influence of the WPSU upon Indian civil rights activist Mohandas Gandhi and U.S. activists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns. It also discusses women's rights groups from several countries including China, the Philippines, and Mexico.

Andrew Carnegie

Andrew Carnegie,  (born November 25, 1835, Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland—died August 11, 1919, Lenox, Massachusetts, U.S.), Scottish-born American industrialist who led the enormous expansion of the American steel industry n the late 19th century. He was also one of the most important philanthropists of his era.

  • Biography of Andrew Carnegie
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Andrew Carnegie.
  • Another biography of Andrew Carnegie
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Andrew Carnegie.
  • Yet another biography of Andrew Carnegie
    Another biography of Andrew Carnegie
  • Philanthrophy of Andrew Carnegie
    This site discusses Andrew Carnegie's philanthropic endeavors.
  • Legacy of Andrew Carnegie's philanthropy
    From, this site discusses the impact and legacy of Carnegie's philanthropy.
  • A legacy of giving
    How Andrew Carnegie inspired others to give.
  • How Andrew Carnegie Turned His Fortune Into A Library Legacy
    This is the transcript of a radio interview on how Andrew Carnegie used his fortune to promote public libraries in the United States.
  • Andrew Carnegie: Robber Baron turned Robin Hood
    Blood flowed when Carnegie Steel busted the union in 1892, but little of it splashed on Andrew Carnegie. The magnate turned his attention to philanthropy, and his good works still benefit people around the globe. What should we make of the complicated capitalist whose legacy includes this advice to the mega-rich: Give something back while you can.
  • Gifts of the "robber barons"
    A commentary on how "robber barons" used their fortunes to support philanthropic endeavors.
  • Another biography of Andrew Carnegie
    The article discusses the life and work of Andrew Carnegie, an entrepreneur and the world's wealthiest man in 1901. Topics include his job as a telegraph clerk for the Pennsylvania Railroad Co., his investment in the Woodruff Co., the first sleeping railroad car, and the sale of his highly efficient Edgar Thomson Steel Works Bessemer steel plant to J.P. Morgan in 1901.
  • The gospel of Andrew Carnegie
    Pays tribute to philanthropist and millionaire Andrew Carnegie who died in 1919. Information on the fortune accumulated by the robber baron; Career background of Carnegie; How Carnegie became a philanthropist in the United States.
  • Where have you gone, Andrew Carnegie?
    Comments on the lack of concern for mankind exhibited by some of the richest people in the United States, and how they should try to measure up to the example set by Andrew Carnegie. Reason for usage of Carnegie as an example; Contributions to the American society; Background on Carnegie; Amount of money in philanthropic givings by Americans in 1994; Number of billionaires in the U.S.; Programs that the rich can contribute to; View of the rich in America.

Rachel Carson

From Biography in Context: Born May 27, 1907, in Springdale, Pennsylvania, Rachel Carson died on April 14, 1964. Carson was a biologist known for her influential book on pesticides, Silent Spring.

  • Biography of Rachel Carson
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Rachel Carson.
  • Another biography of Rachel Carson
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Rachel Carson.
  • Another biography of Rachel Carson
    From the Environmental Encyclopedia, this is another biography of Rachel Carson.
  • Overview of Rachel Carson's work
    Perhaps more than any other women of this century, Rachel Carson has impacted our world. Upon its publication in 1962, Silent Spring, Carson's pioneering polemic on the harm caused by industrial technology, made Americans and the world gain a new awareness of their environment. Fostered by a concern over the diminishing numbers of New England songbirds, Carson's work on behalf of biological preservation served as the foundation for the environmental movement of the last half of the 20th century.
  • Where there's smoke: The birth of environmentalism and a strange link to the belief that smoking doesn't cause cancer
    Rachel Carson's Silent Spring , published 50 years ago this month, effectively marked the birth of the modern environmental movement.
  • Rachel Carson's Prescience
    This article discusses how Rachel Carson accurately predicted future environmental issues and how they would affect the world.
  • Time Magazine's article on Rachel Carson
    Describes the work of environmentalist Rachel Carson. Her personality and background; Her education and training in zoology; Her writing for the United States Bureau of Fisheries, for which she later worked as a biologist; Important writings; Her studies of the sea; Opposition to chemical pesticides and insecticides; Controversy about her book, `Silent Spring.'
  • Tribute to Rachel Carson
    Presents a tribute to Rachel Carson, one of the leading environmentalist in the United States. Accomplishments on and contributions to the field of environmental protection; Personal information.
  • Was Rachel Carson wrong?
    The article reports that "Silent Spring" author and founder of modern environmentalism Rachel Carson is stirring controversy once again on the centenary of her birth. Conservative critics argue that the bans on DDT that followed the publication of her book have led to preventable malarial deaths. The article notes that insects were becoming immune to DDT even as "Silent Spring" was changing opinions about the chemical.

Carrie Chapman Catt

Carrie Chapman Catt

An American reformer, Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) designed the strategy for the final victory of the woman's suffrage movement in 1920 and founded the League of Women Voters.

Christopher Colombus

Christopher Columbus (born between Aug. 26 and Oct. 31?, 1451, Genoa [Italy]—died May 20, 1506, Valladolid, Spain) was a master navigator and admiral whose four transatlantic voyages (1492–93, 1493–96, 1498–1500, and 1502–04) opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the “discoverer” of the New World, although Vikings such as Leif Eriksson had visited North America five centuries earlier. Columbus made his transatlantic voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I, the Catholic Monarchs of Aragon, Castile, and Leon in Spain. He was at first full of hope and ambition, an ambition partly gratified by his title “Admiral of the Ocean Sea,” awarded to him in April 1492, and by the grants enrolled in the Book of Privileges (a record of his titles and claims); however, he died a disappointed man.

  • Biography of Christopher Columbus
    Biography of Christopher Columbus from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Christopher Columbus
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Christopher Columbus.
  • Columbus: Criminal or Conqueror?
    This is a scholarly review of the movie Colombus, released in 1992. It presents several issues that are not acknowledged in books and biographies about Christopher Columbus.
  • Another biography of Christopher Columbus
    From ABC-CLIO's eBook "Colonialism: An International Social, Cultural, and Political Encyclopedia."
  • Scholarly paper on Columbus as important for national identity
    By exploring the intersection of American literature written by Philip Freneau, Joel Barlow, and Noah Webster just after the Revolutionary War and scholarship that supports the dynamic behind cultural myth-making, Bauer sets forth a compelling argument for Columbus’s persistence and importance in American culture and in perpetuating national identity. The analysis is deftly organized and persuasively argued, weaving the disparate aspects of close-reading, historical context, and cultural studies: as a result, she is able to foreground not only the reasons why Columbus was an apt figure for representing national origins, but how the literature of the authors she studies capitalized on the qualities or characteristics of Columbus and his life that would prove powerful in constructing a national identity.
  • Christopher Columbus
    Interesting blog post about the significance and importance of Columbus' Day as well as of Christopher Columbus himself.
  • The top things you didn't know about Christopher Columbus
    Ah, Columbus Day, that holiday in the middle of October that doesn't even guarantee a day off work or school. It's not the most exciting day, really. But Christopher Columbus was a pretty important guy. So we've rounded up some obscure Columbus facts you can use to impress people at parties.
  • Christopher Columbus and the uses of history
    ooks at how the `discovery' of America has drawn mixed reviews from the West over five centuries of commemoration. How the construction of the Columbus' image began; How Columbus is presented in the book `The Harp and the Shadow,' by Alejo Carpentier; Why the discovery of the New World was the root of Spain's evils; The discovery and conquest of America; Current cynicism towards the quincentenary.
  • Where is Christopher Columbus buried?
    The article focuses on issues related to the remains of ocean explorer Christopher Columbus. There are two tombs, one in Spain and another in the Dominican Republic, that enclose the remains of Columbus. In 2003, scientists opened Columbus' coffin in Spain's Cathedral of Seville and studied his bones' genetic material, known as DNA. They concluded that the DNA of those bones perfectly matched with the bones of Columbus's brother Diego, who is also buried in Seville.
  • Columbus sets sail
    The article focuses on the Italian explorer Christopher Columbus including financing from Queen Isabella of Spain to search for islands and mainlands in the Atlantic Ocean, his quest to bring Christianity to any lands he found, and his first landfall on one of the Bahaman Islands.

George Custer

George Armstrong Custer (born December 5, 1839, New Rumley, Ohio, U.S.—died June 25, 1876, Little Bighorn River, Montana Territory), U.S. cavalry officer who distinguished himself in the American Civil War (1861–65) but later led his men to death in one of the most controversial battles in U.S. history, the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

  • Biography of George Custer
    Biography of George Custer from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Custer: Lessons in Leadership
    Book review about Custer which summarizes his leadership style and some of the controversies surrounding his life. Book review is from a scholarly journal.
  • A different book, a different book review
    Another book review, this time for "Custerology:The Enduring Legacy of the Indian Wars and George Armstrong Custer" and published in the Journal of American Culture. Mar2009, Vol. 32 Issue 1, p81-81. 1p.
  • Judging George Custer.
    Opinion piece from Stephen Budiansky and published in the Civil War Times scholarly journal, Feb2011, Vol. 50, Issue 1.
  • The two faces of George Custer
    Opinion piece published in USA Today Magazine in 1994.
  • Another biography of George Custer
    From ABC-CLIO's American Military Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present eBook.
  • Another biography of George Custer
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of George Custer.
  • Custer takes a stance
    The article discusses the mission of U.S. Army general George Armstrong Custer in the U.S. West following the U.S. Civil War in 1865. According to the article, Custer led U.S. troops to Texas in an attempt to enforce U.S. government policies concerning Reconstruction. It discusses laws known as the black codes, the conditions of free African Americans known as Freedmen, and what the article describes as hostile secessionists in Texas opposed to the presence of U.S. Army personnel.
  • Judging Custer
    The article discusses the life and military career of George Armstrong Custer, a U.S. Army officer made famous by the annihilation of his troops by Sioux Indian warriors at the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876. Emphasis is given to the collective historical memory of Custer by Americans. The author discusses Custer's time at the West Point military academy, his skills as a cavalry tactician with the 7th Cavalry, and his opposition to African American suffrage.
  • Custer's First Fight With Plains Indians.
    The article chronicles the battle of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer and his 200 men of the 7th Cavalry with the forces of Pawnee Killer, an Oglala Sioux leader, close to the forks of the Republican River near the site of the present day Benkelman, Nebraska on June 24, 1967. After three hours, the Indians seemed to lose interest and began to withdraw. According to the author, this was good news to the troopers because they were close to running out of ammunition.

John Dillinger

From Biography in Context: John Dillinger (1903-1934) was the most famous modern American criminal. During the Depression of the 1930s his bank robberies were generally regarded as revenge on society's financial institutions that were unfairly exploiting the economically distressed.

Dorothea Lynde Dix,dpr_1.0,g_face,h_300,q_80,w_300/MTE5NDg0MDU0OTQ3MDA1OTY3.jpg

Dorothea Lynde Dix (1802-1887) was an American reformer whose pioneer efforts to improve treatment of mental patients stimulated broad reforms in hospitals, jails, and asylums in the United States and abroad

Frederick Douglass

Frederick Douglass, original name Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey (born February 1818?, Tuckahoe, Md., U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1895, Washington, D.C.), African American who was one of the most eminent human rights leaders of the 19th century. His oratorical and literary brilliance thrust him into the forefront of the U.S. abolition movement, and he became the first black citizen to hold high rank in the U.S. government.

  • Biography of Frederick Douglass
    Biography of Frederick Douglass from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Frederick Douglass
    From Biography in Context, another biography of Frederick Douglass.
  • Frederick Douglass' Patriotism
    Although Frederick Douglass disclaimed any patriotism or love of the United States in the years when he considered its constitution to be pro-slavery, I argue that he was in fact always a patriot and always a lover of his country. This conclusion leads me to argue further that patriotism is not as expressly political as many philosophers suppose. Patriots love their country despite its politics and often unreasonably, although in loving their country they are concerned with its politics. The greatest among them freely dedicate themselves selflessly to the improvement of their country, partly because they love it, and partly because they are moved to take on great projects.
  • The Political Thought of Frederick Douglass
    Review of a book on Frederick Douglass.
  • Background information Frederick DOuglass
    From the Digital Library, this site offers background information on Frederick Douglass.
  • Frederick Douglass offers reflections upon emancipation (1883)
    A primary source from ABC-CLIO's ebook "Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia."
  • "Each for All and All for Each": The Liberal Statesmanship of Frederick Douglass.
    Most scholars agree that Frederick Douglass was a liberal—he was committed to individual rights, toleration, limited government, and self-reliance. Wilson Carey McWilliams deviated from this view by suggesting that Douglass's experience as a slave led him to appreciate human interdependence and reject liberalism in favor of fraternal communitarianism.
  • Frederick Douglass and Abraham Lincoln on Black Equity in the Civil War
    The article presents a historical-rhetorical perspective on the efforts of former U.S. president Abraham Lincoln and abolitionist Frederick Douglass to achieve equality for blacks during the U.S. Civil War.

Henry Ford

Henry Ford

Henry Ford (1863-1947) launched the era of the mass-produced automobile. He provided tools such as the moving assembly line to enable the fast mass-production of cars and other consumer goods.

  • Biography of Henry Ford
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Henry Ford.
  • Another biography of Henry Ford
    From Britannica, this is another extensive biography of Henry Ford.
  • Another biography of Henry Ford
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Henry Ford.
  • Another biography of Henry Ford
    From American Business Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present, another biography of Henry Ford
  • Henry Ford's Business Philosophy
    An article about Ford's business philosophy with actual trial testimony where he describes it in his own words.
  • A profile of Henry Ford
    Profiles automobile maker Henry Ford. Character traits Ford is well remembered for; Birth; Family background; Incorporation of Ford Motor Co. in 1903; Mass production of the Ford Model T; Change of Henry's personality from openness to egocentricity, rigidity, paranoia and cruelty; Anti-semitism; Damage inflicted upon his son Edsel; Decline of the company due to his rigidity; Removal from the company; Death. INSET: More about Henry Ford..
  • Looking at Henry Ford the man
    A magazine article on Henry Ford the man.
  • Henry Ford and the development of the car
    Henry Ford had this vision. "I will build a motor car for the great multitude," he said upon unveiling the Model T in 1908. Cheap, durable, and capable of traveling on poor roads, the Model T was a departure from the idea of the car as status symbol. This is an extract from his autobiography.
  • Henry Ford: Motorizing America
    From 1908 to 1927, the "Tin Lizzie" was America's automobile. The basic Model T design remained the same for 20 years. By 1925, a Tin Lizzie rolled out the factory door every 10 seconds. Henry Ford's genius put America behind the wheel.
  • U.S. Automobile Marketing: 1920–1939
    Marketing changed how cars were purchased in the 1920s and eventually forced Henry Ford to change his business practices.
  • The Middle Class Took Off 100 Years Ago ... Thanks To Henry Ford?
    It was January 1914, a frigid month in Detroit, still thousands lined up in the bitter cold outside a factory in Highland Park, Michigan. They were there to take Henry Ford up on an extraordinary offer: $5 a day for 8 hours of work. For U.S. workers, it was one of the defining moments of the 20th century.
  • Henry Ford didn't pay $5 a day just to be nice
    Sooner or later, when the debate over wages for unskilled workers is raging, Henry Ford's name gets dropped. To many who support paying fast-food workers and Walmart employees more than they make, and more than their labor commands, the carmaker is nearly a patron saint. The problem is that legend is simply not true.

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin, also called Ben Franklin, pseudonym Richard Saunders   (born Jan. 17 [Jan. 6, Old Style], 1706, Boston, Mass. [U.S.]—died April 17, 1790, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.), American printer and publisher, author, inventor and scientist, and diplomat. One of the foremost of the Founding Fathers, Franklin helped draft the Declaration of Independence and was one of its signers, represented the United States in France during the American Revolution, and was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. He made important contributions to science, especially in the understanding of electricity, and is remembered for the wit, wisdom, and elegance of his writing.

  • Biography of Benjamin Franklin
    Biography of Benjamin Franklin from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Benjamin Franklin
    From ABC-CLIO's eBook "U.S. Leadership in Wartime: Clashes, Controversy, and Compromise."
  • Another biography of Benjamin Franklin
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Benjamin Franklin.
  • Life of Benjamin Franklin, especially of his stay in London (1757-1775).
    BENJAMIN FRANKLIN, a poorly-educated Boston boy who ran away from home to find his fortune in Philadelphia as journalist, editor, printer and publisher, founder of its University and of the American Philosophical Society, was the nearest to a genius of all the Founding Fathers of the United States. He was a practical man as well as a theorist. He was fascinated by natural phenomena, and constantly asked the question 'Why?'.
  • The Wisdom of Benjamin Franklin
    An article in the Saturday Post of 1961 about Benjamin Franklin.
  • Overview of Benjamin Franklin's life
    This is a concise overview of Benjamin Franklin's life, including his writings and his involvement in American politics.
  • The many faces of Benjamin Franklin
    Discusses the role of Ben Franklin as a founding father for the U.S. colonies. Consideration of the historical images depicting Franklin as a newspaperman, essayist, pamphleteer, memoirist, and correspondent; His understanding of the relationships between the media and the public; Criticism of Franklin by writers such as D.H. Lawrence and Sinclair Lewis; Influence of Franklin on the policies of the U.S. Constitution.
  • The wisdom of Benjamin Franklin
    The article focuses on statesman, scientist, writer and philosopher, Benjamin Franklin, who never forgot his earthy origin.

Emma Goldman

Emma Goldman

As an anarchist writer, lecturer, and agitator, Emma Goldman was one of the most outstanding rebels in American history. "Red Emma," as she became known, boldly championedd individual freedom in the United States despite prison terms and eventual deportation.

  • Biography of Emma Goldman
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Emma Goldman.
  • Another biography of Emma Goldman
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Emma Goldman.
  • Another biography of Emma Goldman
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Emma Goldman.
  • An Anarchist Looks at Life speech (1933)
    In 1933, activist Emma Goldman delivered this speech on anarchist beliefs.
  • Life of Emma Goldman
    From Making It in America: A Sourcebook on Eminent Ethnic Americans, this will take you to the letter G. Search or scroll down until you find Emma Goldman.
  • Another biography of Emma Goldman
    From the Encyclopedia of Women Social Reformers, this is another biography of Emma Goldman
  • Emma Goldman in World War I
    From World War I: A Student Encyclopedia, another entry on Emma Goldman
  • J. Edgar Hoover and Emma Goldman
    Describes the deportation trial of Emma Goldman, a Russian emigre from Russia in 1919. Crusader for nonviolent anarchism, freedom of speech, and birth control; Chief inquisitor, J. Edgar Hoover; Charges of complicity in President William McKinley's assassination; Goldman's deportation.
  • Book review of Emma Goldman, an Intimate Life
    This is a book review of Emma Goldman, an Intimate Life, written in 1986.
  • Hoisting the Black Flag: Emma Goldman and Anarchy
    Peter Glassgold is a writer whose collection of prose and poetry from an American anarchist magazine of 1906-17 speaks about the fights for birth control, civil liberties, and against joblessness. Anarchists have the advantage of exclusion and the nobility of failure. They have rarely had much power. The prominent propagandists and agitators Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman rallied around the Bolsheviks in 1917. Mother Earth, a New York journal edited by Goldman and Berkman, which accepted work by anarchists and non-anarchists spoke against a number of social problems. The gist of anarchist idea is that there are qualities present in man which permit the possibilities of social life, organization and cooperative work without the application of force.
  • Red Emma
    Focuses on Emma Goldman, an anarchist who opposed World War I. Reputation; Allegations against Goldman; Closing arguments to the jury.
  • The Emma Goldman Papers
    From UC Berkeley's digital library project, this is a site of sources on Emma Goldman.
  • Emma Goldman
    From, this web site discusses Emma Goldman, including her evolution as an activist and ways in which she fought the law.
  • Background information on the pill
    This site features background information on contraception before the pill.
  • Anthony Comstock's "Chastity" Laws
    Background information on chastity laws and the legal fight against contraception.

John Hancock

John Hancock,  (born Jan. 12, 1737, Braintree (now in Quincy), Mass.—died Oct. 8, 1793, Quincy, Mass., U.S.), American Revolutionary leader and first signer of the U.S. Declaration of Independence.

John Edgar Hoover

J. Edgar Hoover

In 1924, at the age of 29, John Edgar Hoover became the third director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). By the time he died in office 48 years later, he had created a powerful federal government crime-fighting agency.

Andrew Jackson

Andrew Jackson, byname Old Hickory    (born March 15, 1767, Waxhaws region, South Carolina [U.S.]—died June 8, 1845, the Hermitage, near Nashville, Tennessee, U.S.), military hero and seventh president of the United States (1829–37). He was the first U.S. president to come from the area west of the Appalachians and the first to gain office by a direct appeal to the mass of voters. His political movement has since been known as Jacksonian Democracy.

  • Biography of Andrew Jackson
    Biography of Andrew Jackson from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Andrew Jackson
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Andrew Jackson.
  • Cherokees and Congregationalists vs. Georgia and Andrew Jackson: The Attempt to Prevent the Trail of Tears
    This article outlines events that presaged underlying conflicts in American religious and political life that later culminated in the Civil War: the relationship between states' rights and the federal government, the balance of power between the President, the Supreme Court, and Congress, and the role of Christian faith in voicing and/or speaking to national justice and morality. The story is notable for two historic events: the defiant refusal of the President of the United States to enforce a ruling of the Supreme Court, and the imprisonment of two white Congregational missionaries on behalf of the Cherokee Nation.
  • Andrew Jackson and the Removal Act of 1830
    Lengthy article about Andrew Jackson and his refusal to enforce a Supreme Court decision deeming the Removal Act of 1830 unconstitutional.
  • Andrew Jackson versus the Cherokee Nation
    Lengthy article explaining the conflict that arose between Andrew Jackson and the Cherokee Nation.
  • Faithful Execution: Andrew Jackson, Worcester v. Georgia, and the Indian Removal Affair
    Online article about the impact that Jackson's election and his decision not to enforce the laws of the nation had on American history.
  • Andrew Jackson: Tea Party President.
    The article features former U.S. President Andrew Jackson. It contends that Jackson is the model of the Tea Party movement principle of conservative populism, citing his opposition to big government, corporate bailouts of the administrations of U.S. President George W. Bush and U.S. President Barack Obama, and fiscal incontinence. It explores the political background of Jackson as a member of the Democratic Party of the 19th century.
  • Defending the Union: Andrew Jackson's Nullification Proclamation and American Federalism.
    This essay contends that we can better understand Andrew Jackson's distinctive account of federalism by looking outside the Jeffersonian and Jacksonian political traditions. More appropriate peers for Jackson, as a constitutional statesman, are John Marshall and Abraham Lincoln. Existing treatments of Jackson miss these connections because they focus primarily on his roles as party leader and reformer, to the neglect of his constitutional statesmanship.

Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson,  (born April 2 [April 13, New Style], 1743, Shadwell, Va. [U.S.]—died July 4, 1826, Monticello, Va., U.S.), draftsman of the Declaration of Independence of the United States and the nation’s first secretary of state (1789–94), second vice president (1797–1801), and, as the third president (1801–09), the statesman responsible for the Louisiana Purchase. An early advocate of total separation of church and state, he also was the founder and architect of the University of Virginia and the most eloquent American proponent of individual freedom as the core meaning of the American Revolution.

  • Biography of Thomas Jefferson
    Biography of Thomas Jefferson from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Thomas Jefferson
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Thomas Jefferson
  • Thomas Jefferson and Slavery
    The conventional wisdom about Jefferson is that he would have eventually freed his slaves if he had been sawier about handling his business affairs and had not fallen hopelessly in debt. But a close examination of recently published volumes of the scholarly edition of The Papers of Thomas Jefferson suggests that the firebrand who denounced the slave trade as "an execrable commerce" and a "cruel war against human nature itself" in an early draft of the Declaration of Independence later came to view slavery as an evil he could live with, no matter what his ideals, because it brought him financial success.
  • Thomas Jefferson on the Character of an Unfree People: The Case of Spanish America
    Thomas Jefferson perceived the people of Spanish America during their revolutionary struggles of the 1810s through the lens of national historical development, formulating an ambiguous attitude toward them. Although welcoming their independence movements, he questioned their ability to establish free, self-governing republics believing that they needed to undergo a process of political maturation so that they could develop a republican character. As well as regarding the newly liberated countries of Spanish America as potential allies of the United States, Jefferson expressed concern about their becoming its economic and political rivals. Experiencing the new states as scenes of permanent military conflicts, he even suggested temporary restoration of metropolitan control over them by Spain.
  • Thomas Jefferson pragmatist or visionary?
    How should we view Thomas Jefferson in this, the 250th anniversary of his birth? Colin Bonwick offers his assessment of the man as America's third president, party leader and Enlightenment enthusiast.
  • Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of Thomas Jefferson
    Offers a look at United States founding father and former president Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826, the author of the Declaration of Independence.
  • Thomas Jefferson pragmatist or visionary?
    Presents the author's assessment of Thomas Jefferson as America's third president, party leader and Enlightenment enthusiast. Centrality of Jefferson's work to the new American republic; Why he aroused animosity among Americans; How his reputation ceased to be controversial in the late twentieth century; Inconsistencies in his behavior; Self view as a mover and a shaper of independence and the new republic; Creation of the University of Virginia; Length of political career; More.

John F. Kennedy


John F. Kennedy, in full John Fitzgerald Kennedy, byname JFK   (born May 29, 1917, Brookline, Massachusetts, U.S.—died November 22, 1963, Dallas, Texas), 35th president of the United States (1961–63), who faced a number of foreign crises, especially in Cuba and Berlin, but managed to secure such achievements as the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty and the Alliance for Progress. He was assassinated while riding in a motorcade in Dallas.

  • Biography of John F. Kennedy
    From Britannica, this is a biography of John F. Kennedy.
  • Another biography of John F. Kennedy
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of John F. Kennedy.
  • Another biography of John F. Kennedy
    From ABC-CLIO, another biography of John F. Kennedy.
  • John F. Kennedy: Long Twilight Struggle speech (1961)
    In 1961, John F. Kennedy gave this speech explaining U.S. Cold War policy. Kennedy speaks about the potential threat of war and the need to collaborate with "countries lacking in freedom in order to strengthen the cause of freedom" and ultimately defeat communism.
  • John F. Kennedy
    Several eBook entries on John F. Kennedy that will lead to other articles.
  • John F. Kennedy Faced Civil Rights Opponents In His Own Party.
    One of the goals of the 1963 march was to prod Congress to pass civil rights legislation. President Kennedy had proposed a comprehensive bill earlier that summer, but he faced unrelenting opposition from lawmakers, many in his own party.
  • John F. Kennedy's Vision of Peace
    The article discusses the U.S. President John F. Kennedy and his ambition to break the militaristic ideology of the U.S. and promote world peace by any means necessary. Topics include his correspondence and relationship with the Soviet political leader Nikita Khrushchev in an attempt to end the Cold War, his attempts to end U.S. involvement in Vietnam, and details of his speech on June 10, 1963 regarding world peace.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy: civil rights' wary allies.
    The National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis on Monday played for the first time in public portions of an old tape recording that sheds new light on the complicated relationship between two iconic American political figures of the late 20th century: Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy.
  • The Legacy of John F. Kennedy
    Presents the opinion of the author on former U.S. President John F. Kennedy. Discussion on the interest of President Kennedy in learning; Reference to the considerate nature of President Kennedy; Information on the values and standards of President Kennedy; Opinion of President Kennedy on the business community; Lack of rapport of President Kennedy with many leading liberal intellectuals.
  • John F. Kennedy without Tears
    Recounts the often ugly political and moral realities behind former U. S. President John F. Kennedy. Good qualities of President Kennedy; His legacy that benefited from one of his failures; Reasons the distasteful factors of President Kennedy's private life have been one of the few aspects of his record that have been overly discussed; Overview of Kennedy's first year in office.
  • John F. Kennedy's Civil Rights Quandary
    Investigates U.S. President John F. Kennedy's stand on civil rights. His legislative agenda; Highlights of Kennedy's June 11, 1963 televised evening speech announcing his civil rights bill proposal; Provisions of his proposed civil rights bill.

Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy

Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis

Only 34 years old when her husband, President John F. Kennedy, was assassinated in Dallas, Jackie Kennedy was declared public property after guiding the country through a dignified mourning for their lost leader.

  • A biography of Jacqueline Kennedy
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Jacqueline Kennedy.
  • Another biography of Jacqueline Kennedy
    This is another biography of Jacqueline Kennedy from Britannica.
  • One more biography of Jacqueline Kennedy
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Jacqueline Kennedy.
  • Jackie and the girls
    The essay discusses the life of Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, informed by the books "Jacqueline Kennedy: Historic Conversations on Life With John F. Kennedy," by Arthur Schlesinger Jr., and "Once Upon a Secret: My Affair With President John F. Kennedy and Its Aftermath," by Mimi Alford. Topics include Jacqueline's thoughts about her husband John F. Kennedy (JFK), a 2011 appearance of her daughter Caroline Kennedy on the television show hosted by David Letterman, and JKF's marital affairs.
  • After Kennedy's Death, Wife Jacqueline Embodied Grace.
    From NPR: How Jacqueline lived the week after Kennedy's assassination.
  • The private Jackie
    Several photographs of the former U.S. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy are presented that depict her different public faces including as a good wife to U.S. President John F. Kennedy, as a so-called Queen of Denial who ignored her husband's romantic affairs, and as a sharp critic.
  • Jackie Kennedy: A view from the crowd.
    Focuses on former U.S. First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy. Efforts of journalists and photographers to monitor her activities; Details of an incident involving Kennedy and various reporters at the La Côte Basque restaurant in New York City; Information on various tabloids and women's fashion magazines that feature articles about her.

Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. led the African-American struggle to achieve full rights of U.S. citizenship and showed how mass peaceful action could solve intractable social and political problems. He eloquently voiced the hopes and grievances of African Americans, persuading the majority of them to take him as their leader.

  • Biography of Martin Luther King Jr.
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Another biography of Martin Luther King Jr.
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Martin Luther King Jr.: A Civil Rights Leader
    Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was the most popular and effective leader of the African American struggle for civil rights in the United States. His philosophy of nonviolent direct action galvanized thousands of Americans, both black and white, to press for granting the full measure of human and political rights to African Americans. Although he was not personally responsible for mobilizing protest, he was certainly one of the greatest organizers of people the world has ever seen. In the early twenty-first century, a national holiday is named in his honor, and numerous highways, streets, schools, playgrounds, and public buildings display his name.
  • Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy: civil rights' wary allies.
    The National Civil Rights Museum in Memphis on Monday played for the first time in public portions of an old tape recording that sheds new light on the complicated relationship between two iconic American political figures of the late 20th century: Martin Luther King Jr. and John F. Kennedy.
  • MLK's manifesto: letter from Birmingham Jail' at 50
    FIFTY YEARS AGO, in June 1963, the CHRISTIAN CENTURY found itself near the center of American public debate when it was the first large-circulation magazine to publish the full text of Martin Luther King Jr.'s "Letter from Birmingham Jail." The letter would shortly thereafter stand as the manifesto of those King led in pursuing African-American civil rights in the mid-1960s by means of nonviolent direct action. And it eventually assumed pride of place alongside Henry David Thoreau's "Civil Disobedience" as a touchstone for the theory and practice of civil disobedience in American protest politics.
  • The Nation Remembers Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
    The article describes events held around the U.S. in commemoration of the 20th Martin Luther King Day.
  • The driving furies of Martin Luther King Jr.
    The article looks into the personality of Martin Luther King Jr., who is known for leading the passage of the U.S. Civil Rights Act and the charge that ended a system of segregation. It associates King's mental and physical exhaustion to depression after his grandmother's death. It rejects the notion that King suffered from manic symptoms and depressive episodes as his nonviolent resistance can be understood as a politics of radical empathy and his courage had roots in his spiritual background.
  • Martin Luther King's half-forgotten dream.
    Argues that, by making Martin Luther King Jr. an icon of the Civil Rights Movement, people have misrepresented the complexity of those struggles. Challenging campaigns of King's last years; Distorting effect of the King legacy; Views on King's successful national role; Information on the Poor People's Campaign.
  • A brief history of the Civil Rights movement
    Martin Luther King, Jr., Malcolm X, and the Civil Rights struggle of the 1950s and 1960s

General Robert Edward Lee


General in chief of the Confederate armies in the American Civil War, Robert Edward Lee (1807-1870) displayed strategic sense and tactical skill that rank him among the great military captains of history.

  • Biography of Robert E. Lee
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Robert E. Lee.
  • Another biography of Robert E. Lee
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Robert E. Lee.
  • Profile of Robert E. Lee
    From Historic World Leaders, a profile of Robert E. Lee along with a timeline.
  • Another biography of Robert E. Lee
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Robert E. Lee.
  • Robert E. Lee: Farewell to the Army of Northern Virginia letter (1865)
    The commander of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia, Gen. Robert E. Lee wrote this public letter to his men on April 10, 1865 from his headquarters outside of Appomattox Courthouse in Virginia. He had just surrendered his forces to Union Gen. Ulysses S. Grant after four years of bitter struggle in defense of the Confederacy. With this message, he urges his troops to return to their families and farms, encouraging them to put the dark days of the Civil War behind them.
  • Robert E. Lee: official reports on the Battle of Gettysburg (1863)
    In this series of official reports to Confederate President Jefferson Davis, Confederate Gen. Robert E. Lee details the events at and immediately after the momentous Battle of Gettysburg on July 1-3, 1863. Although the battle had cost both the Union and Confederate armies greatly, the Confederates suffered more in the long run, as they no longer had the manpower to replace those who had fallen. Many historians consider this battle as the turning point of the Civil War.
  • Another profile of Robert E. Lee
    From America's Military Adversaries: From Colonial Times to the Present, this is a profile or Robert E. Lee.
  • A Texas private's long-forgotten account of Robert E. Lee's brush with death at the Battle of the Wilderness.
    The article discusses the actions of Confederate States of America Army General Robert E. Lee's actions at the Battle of the Wilderness during the U.S. Civil War, and provides a firsthand account of Lee's actions from Confederate Texan soldier James H. Cosgrove.
  • 7 days that made Robert E. Lee an icon.
    In this article the author discusses on the seven days battle military officer Robert Edward Lee in 1862 at various places including Tennessee rivers, Nashville and New Orleans. He discusses on the each day plans and moves and informs about each battle including Battle of Oak Grove, Battle of Gaines' Mill and Battle of Malvern Hill.
  • Treasures of Robert E. Lee Discovered.
    The article presents information on the discovery of two lost trunks in Burke & Herbert Bank & Co., which belonged to U.S. armed force general Robert E. Lee. The discovery occurred in 2002, as Robert E.L. deButts Jr., the great-great-grandson of Robert E. Lee, conducted family research. The collection contain letters written by Robert E. Lee and also several hesitant attempts by Lee to chronicle his military actions in the Civil War.

Lewis and Clark

Meriwether Lewis, (born Aug. 18, 1774, near Charlottesville, Va. — died Oct. 11, 1809, near Nashville, Tenn., U.S.), American explorer, who with William Clark led the Lewis and Clark Expedition through the uncharted American interior to the Pacific Northwest in 1804–06. He later served as governor of Upper Louisiana Territory.

William Clark, (born Aug. 1, 1770, Caroline county, Va. — died Sept. 1, 1838, St. Louis, Mo.), American frontiersman who won fame as an explorer by sharing with Meriwether Lewis the leadership of their epic expedition to the Pacific Northwest (1804–06). He later played an essential role in the development of the Missouri Territory and was superintendent of Indian affairs at St. Louis.

  • Biography of William Clark
    Biography of William Clark from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of William Clark
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of William Clark.
  • Biography of Meriwether Lewis
    Biography of Meriwether Lewis from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of Meriwether Lewis
    From Biography in Context, another biography of Meriwether Lewis.
  • We Got There First!
    How Alexander Mackenzie, a Canadian, traveled more than 6,500 km across Canada to be the first to reach the Pacific Ocean by land, and how Lewis and Clark used the information from his travel journals to help their own journey.
  • Scholarly review of five books on Lewis and Clark
    Here is a review of five books dealing with Lewis and Clark.
  • Another short biography of Lewis and Clark
    A one page biography of Lewis and another page on Clark.
  • Lewis and Clark's Decision
    The article discusses explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, with a particular focus on their leadership of the U.S. Corps of Discovery during their 1804-1806 expedition seeking a route to the Pacific Ocean. Details on their decision-making process when confronted with an unexpected fork in the Missouri River are presented. According to the author, the confidence which the other members of the expedition placed in Lewis and Clark was key to their mission's success.
  • The expedition of Lewis and Clark
    Presents an overview of the 1804 expedition, led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, into the United States' Louisiana Territory. Biographical details; Desire of President Thomas Jefferson to exploit the legendary Northwest Passage trade route; Details of the explorers' Corps of Discovery; Westward route taken by the company; Encounters with Native American tribes; Wildlife and foliage encountered by the corps; Role of Shoshoni guide Sacajawea during the expedition; Documentation of their findings.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln

From ABC-CLIO: Abraham Lincoln is perhaps the most loved of all the U.S. presidents. His words, always simple and eloquent, exhorting preservation of the Union, then asking forgiveness and peace for all who fought and suffered in the war, are equally familiar and moving. For most people, Lincoln personifies the American spirit of freedom and equality.

  • Biography of Abraham Lincoln
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Abraham Lincoln.
  • Lincoln's relationship to the US Constitution
    From Biography, an analysis of Lincoln's relationship to the US Constitution.
  • The election of 1864
    How Lincoln convinced soldiers and sailors to vote for him so he could pursue the war.
  • Lincoln and the 1st Amendment
    Stop the presses: the Lincoln administration turned a blind eye to the First Amendment in the interest of national security
  • Another biography of Abraham Lincoln
    This biography of Lincoln is from Britannica.
  • One more biography of Lincoln
    From ABC-CLIO, this is one more biography of Lincoln.
  • Several of Lincoln's speeches are listed on this page
    From ABC-CLIO, this is a list of 393 articles on Lincoln, including several links to actual speeches.
  • Where Abraham Lincoln Went to Cry.
    The article discusses the President's House at Soldiers Home, a summer cottage near Washington, D.C. frequented by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and his family between 1862 and 1864. The article notes First Lady Mary Todd Lincoln's views regarding the cottage, and highlights various aspects of the cottage which allowed President Lincoln to attend to matters related to the American Civil War. The daily habits of the Lincoln's while at the Soldiers Home are chronicled.
  • Abraham Lincoln, Stepfather of Our Country.
    The article explores the impact of former U.S. President Abraham Lincoln on the U.S. It examines the significance of Lincoln's efforts and actions regarding three of important issues of his times such as the Constitution, particularly during the war between the states, emancipation and blacks and the radical Republicans and Reconstruction.
  • What Did Abraham Lincoln Stand For?
    Presents the text of a speech delivered by Ralph Y. McGinnis, Director of the Department of Speech at Eastern Illinois University, at the Illinois State Legislature Lincoln Memorial Observance on February 15, 1979, which focused on the personal character, intellectual capacities, and emotional nature of former U.S. president Abraham Lincoln.

Logging in New Hampshire

Dolley Madison

Dolley Payne Todd Madison was married James Madison, the President of the United States from 1809 to 1817. Known for her social abilities and presence, she saved the White House's art collection from looting and burning during the War of 1812.

  • Biography of Dolley Madison
    Biography of Dolley Madison from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Biography of Dolley Madison from the White House
    For half a century she was the most important woman in the social circles of America. To this day she remains one of the best known and best loved ladies of the White House.
  • Dolley Madison from the White House Historical Association
    A summary of how Dolley Madison saved the portrait of George Washington from the British.
  • Dolley Madison saves portrait from British
    On this day in 1814, first lady Dolley Madison saves a portrait of George Washington from being looted by British troops during the war of 1812.
  • Abigail Adams and Dolley Madison
    Abigail Adams (1744-1818) and Dolley Madison (1768-1849) helped expand the role of First Lady to a leader and representative of the nation. Each woman demonstrated great courage in support of the new nation and inspired others, helping to define roles for women in the new country. They also showed great understanding of the nuanced role of the first lady, developing the role into a representation of the enduring sprit of the nation.
  • Dolley Madison, from the Miller Center
    A biography of Dolley Madison.
  • Dolley Madison saved the day
    The article focuses on Dolley Madison, wife of U.S. President James Madison, and her role in the War of 1812 with Great Britain. Madison's role as an informal political adviser to her husband is considered. An overview is presented of the U.S. conduct of the war, with emphasis placed on the extreme difficulty of financing it due to reluctance within the Congress and U.S. states to appropriate funds for the armed forces. Dolley Madison's involvement in saving government documents and art objects from the White House when Washington D.C. was occupied by British forces in August, 1814 and many of its public buildings burned is described.
  • Dolley Payne Madison: An Exhibit
    This web site, from the University of Virginia, features the life, letters, and legacy of Dolley Payne Madison: first First Lady to preside in Washington D.C. and wife of James Madison, "father" of the constitution and fourth president of the United States.
  • Dolley Madison's Courage Under Fire.
    The article reflects on the efforts of former U.S. First Lady Dolley Madison to resist the aggression posed by British colonies to the country in the 1800s. Topics covered include Madison's contributions to the improvements in the political conditions in Washington, D.C. and support for U.S. President James Madison. Also mentioned is the desire of British forces to capture Dolley Madison and become their prisoner.

General Douglas MacArthur

Douglas MacArthur, 1945.
[Credit: Courtesy of the Bureau of Archives, MacArthur Memorial; photograph, U.S. Signal Corps]

Douglas MacArthur,  (born January 26, 1880, Little Rock, Arkansas, U.S.—died April 5, 1964, Washington, D.C.), U.S. general who commanded the Southwest Pacific Theatre iin World War II, administered postwar Japan during the Allied occupation that followed, and led United Nations forces during the first nine months of the Korean War.

  • Biography of Douglas MacArthur
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Douglas MacArthur.
  • Another biography of Douglas MacArthur
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Douglas MacArthur.
  • Another biography of Douglas MacArthur
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Douglas MacArthur.
  • Douglas MacArthur: Farewell Speech to Congress (1951)
    The Allied commander of United Nation forces during the Korean War, controversial U.S. general Douglas MacArthur was relieved of his office by President Harry Truman on April 11, 1951. Eight days later, on April 19, MacArthur delivered this farewell address to Congress, offering a defense of his actions in Korea. Although he harbored political ambitions, MacArthur never served again in any significant public office.
  • Douglas MacArthur: Courageous and Dedicated
    From ABC-CLIO, this articles focuses on the Korean War.
  • Another biography of Douglas MacArthur
    From Encyclopedia of the Korean War: A Political, Social, and Military History, this is another biography of Douglas MacArthur.
  • Douglas MacArthur: A profile
    Profiles United States General Douglas MacArthur. The start of his career in World War I; Conflict with General John Pershing; Influence of his mother, Pinky MacArthur; His time in the Philippines; MacArthur's actions in disbursing the veterans impoverished by the Depression that had gathered at the Capitol in Washington, D.C.; Tactics of MacArthur in World War II; His efforts to win good press.
  • The Most Dangerous Man in America: The Making of Douglas MacArthur.
    Like his subject, Mark Perry's biography of General Douglas MacArthur is sure to stir extreme passions. Perry admits that MacArthur was "among the most controversial generals in American history." To this day people either revere or loathe him; there doesn't seem to be any middle ground.
  • The Reconversion of Douglas MacArthur
    This is a contemporary article from 1946, and it focuses on the transition of Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, from being a U.S. military leader to an apostle of peace in Japan. He became a U.S. military observer of Japanese forces with his father, the late Lieutenant General Arthur MacArthur in 1900s. His meeting with Grove Patterson, editor of "Toledo Blade," influenced his transition. MacArthur asserts that the press have a significant role in promoting peace.
  • My search for Douglas MacArthur
    Profiles the military career of United States Army General Douglas MacArthur. His achievements; His contributions to American history; Places visited by MacArthur; MacArthur's talents; Research into MacArthur's personal life; Personalities in MacArthur's life; Memorial to MacArthur.
  • Speech by MacArthur in 1955: The Abolition of War
    Presents the text of a speech on the threats of war and the concept of its abolition by U.S. General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, delivered on January 26, 1955 in MacArthur Park, Los Angeles, California.
  • The Issue of Limited War in Korea Joint Chiefs of Staff to Gen. MacArthur
    Discusses the message of the US Joint Chiefs of Staffs to General Douglas MacArthur about the ability of the Chinese Communists to force United Nations forces out of Korea. How the execution of the Chinese capability might be prevented; How the deflation of the military and the political prestige of the Chinese Communists would be of great importance to national interest of United States; MacArthur's comments on this message in his reply to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.

Christa McAuliffe

Teacher Christa McAuliffe (1948-1986) was the first private citizen to be included in a space mission. Her space flight was meant to inspire students to study science, and she was scheduled to teach lessons to classrooms on earth from space. She died in a fiery explosion mere seconds after the launch of the space shuttle Challenger on January 28, 1986.

Harvey Bernard Milk

Harvey Milk

Harvey Milk (1930-1978), a San Francisco city politician, helped open the door for gays and lesbians in the United States by bringing civil rights for homosexuals, among many other issues, to the political table.

John Muir

John Muir

The writings of John Muir (1838-1914), American naturalist and explorer, are important for their scientific observations and their contributions to the cause of conservation. Muir also cofounded the Sierra Club environmental organization.

  • Biography of John Muir
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of John Muir.
  • Another biography of John Muir
    From Britannica, this is another biography of John Muir.
  • Our National Parks (1901)
    Our National Parks is a collection of essays by Muir, originally written for the Atlantic Monthly. Muir wrote about the beauty and grandeur of the nation's forests and mountain ranges, hoping to encourage people to visit these areas and to realize the importance of maintaining a portion of the country in its original, natural state.
  • Another biography of John Muir
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of John Muir.
  • John Muir pamphlet on the Hetch Hetchy Valley controversy
    John Muir, the leading preservationist of his day, led the bitter fight against the damming of the Hetch Hetchy Valley to create a reservoir for the city of San Francisco. In this 1911 pamphlet, he issued a rallying cry to the public to join in the fight to preserve the valley.
  • Profile of John Muir
    From American Environmental Leaders: From Colonial Times to the Present, this is a profile of John Muir.
  • John Muir's Yosemite
    The article presents a profile of the 19th century naturalist John Muir and his work towards the protection of Yosemite National Park in California. The history of Muir is discussed, highlighting his iconic status within the naturalist subculture, correcting popular myths of the man, and outlining the events of his visits to the national park. The history of Yosemite itself is also discussed, discussing its violent annexation from the native inhabitants in the 1850s and its evolution into a legally protected forest.

Carry Amelia Moore Nation


Carrie Amelia Moore Nation was an American woman who was a radical member of the temperance movement, which opposed alcohol before the advent of Prohibition.

Annie Oakley

Oakley, Annie (picture)

Annie Oakley was known for her amazing speed and accuracy with rifles and pistols.

General George Smith Patton, Jr.

George Smith Patton Jr.

George Smith Patton, Jr. (1885-1945), was one of the outstanding tactical commanders of World War II. His campaigns in Sicily, France, and Germany were distinguished by boldness and an imaginative use of armor.

  • Biography of George Patton
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of George S. Patton.
  • Another biography of George S. Patton
    From Britannica, this is another biography of George S. Patton.
  • Longer biography of George S. Patton
    From the Dictionary of American Biography, this is a longer entry on George S. Patton.
  • Old blood and guts earns his nickname
    ON September 26, 1918, Col. George Patton once again had disobeyed orders to remain at his command post. This is what happened.
  • A profile of George S. Patton
    From American Decades, this is a profile of George S. Patton.
  • When a Dash Becomes a Siege
    Editorial comparing George S. Patton's campaign to the invasion of Iraq in 2003.
  • George Patton's summer of 1944
    Nearly 70 years ago, on Aug. 1, 1944, Lt. Gen. George S. Patton took command of the American Third Army in France. For the next 30 days, they rolled straight toward the German border. Patton almost did not get a chance at his summer of glory. Read about it here.
  • Another biography of George S. Patton
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of George S. Patton.
  • George S. Patton
    From the Encyclopedia of World War II: A Political, Social, and Military History, this is an entry on George S. Patton
  • PDF of George S. Patton's highlights from his own words
    The article relates the experiences of the late U.S. General George S. Patton, Jr., leader of the Third Army, in France during World War II based on his diary from August 1 to September 24, 1944. He went to a Catholic Field Mass in the first Sunday he spent in Normandy. Two Army corps were able to pass through Avranches. They successfully crossed the Seine and Yonne rivers at Montereau and Sens. His troops persuaded General Dwight Eisenhower to allow the V Corps of the 1st Army and the 3rd Army to attack the Siegfried Line.
  • The German view of George S. Patton
    The article reveals the opinions of German military officers on U.S. General George Patton Jr. German general Gü:nther Blumentritt referred Patton as the most aggressive tank general of the Allied Forces during World War II for his speedy actions in mobilizing Allied tank forces. Alfred Jodl, former chief of operations for German leader Adolf Hitler, described Patton as the U.S. counterpart to German General Heinz Guderian for applying large-scale risks and commanding large troop movements.

Alice Paul


Credited with revitalizing the movement for women's suffrage, Alice Paul (1885-1977) mobilized a generation of women who had grown impatient with the incremental measures being taken toward gaining the vote.

  • Biography of Alice Paul
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Alice Paul.
  • Another biography of Alice Paul
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Alice Paul.
  • Another biography of Alice Paul
    From Suffrage to the Senate: An Encyclopedia of American Women in Politics, this is another biography of Alice Paul.
  • Profile of Alice Paul
    From ABC-CLIO, this is a profile of Alice Paul.
  • Fearless Radicalism: Alice Paul and Her Fight for Women’s Suffrage
    Alice Paul’s radicalism played the most crucial role in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment which gave women the right to vote.
  • Life and works of Alice Paul
    The article focuses on the life and works of American feminist Alice Paul.
  • We Will Fight for You!
    The article discusses the significance of the radical British suffrage movement organization the Women's Social and Political Union (WSPU) upon the global fight for female suffrage during the 20th century. It examines the efforts of British suffragists, also known as suffragettes, such as Emmeline Pankhurst, and the influence of the WPSU upon Indian civil rights activist Mohandas Gandhi and U.S. activists Alice Paul and Lucy Burns. It also discusses women's rights groups from several countries including China, the Philippines, and Mexico.
  • Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage
    Article on the Congressional Union for Woman Suffrage, which was formed in 1913 by militant suffragist Alice Paul. It was a controversial though effective organization that successfully agitated for American women to receive the right to vote in federal elections.
  • The National Woman's Party
    Article on the National Woman's Party (NWP), a radical women's group, worked for passage of the Nineteenth Amendment.
  • The Sex Amendment
    Background information on how women got in on the Civil Rights Act.

Franklin Pierce

Franklin Pierce

Chosen as a candidate from the North who could please the South, Franklin Pierce, as 14th president of the United States, tried to find the way to compromise during the fateful years of the 1850s but succeeded only in splitting the country further apart.

  • Biography of Franklin Pierce
    Biography of Franklin Pierce from ABC-CLIO.
  • Another biography of Franklin Pierce
    Another biography of Franklin Pierce, this time from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Franklin's role as President
    An intriguing paradox characterizes Franklin Pierce's administration: on the one hand, few administrations exerted such a powerful impact on the social and political life of the American nation, but on the other hand, few presidents exercised such little influence on their administration's policies. Pierce was an inconsequential charmer who staked his claim for presidential greatness on other people's not very charming initiatives. His failure was not just his own but also that of a political culture so fragmented that its factions could agree only on a pleasant nonentity as president yet so convulsed that it demanded a president who would act forcefully. A split culture thus bred a non-actor clinging to more forceful statesmen's actions as if they were his own but who was sure to be destroyed when his adopted initiatives enraged half his civilization.
  • Purposes Just and Pacific: Franklin Pierce and the American Empire
    The Administration of Franklin Pierce has frequently been the object of study for historians of antebellum domestic politics, but few have examined the contribution of the Administration’s foreign policy initiatives and objectives. This paper demonstrates that Pierce’s foreign policy drew from the same partisan well as his domestic politics: a strict interpretation of power under the Constitution and a strong sense of racial paternalism that had come to define the ideological core of Democratic Party by the 1850s.
  • Franklin Pierce
    From the Miller Center at the University of Virginia, this is an excellent resource that highlight several aspects of Pierce's life, including life before the presidency, domestic affairs, impact and legacy, and key events.
  • Inauguration of President Pierce.
    Provides information on the inauguration of Franklin Pierce, 14th President of the U.S., on March 4, 1853. Political background; Surprise caused by his decision to affirm instead of take the oath at his inauguration; Issues he discussed during his inaugural speech.

Pocahontas (Rebecca Rolfe)

Pocahontas, also called Matoaka and Amonute, Christian name Rebecca (born c. 1596, near present-day Jamestown, Virginia, U.S.—died March 1617, Gravesend, Kent, England), Powhatan Indian woman who fostered peace between English colonists and Native Americans by befriending the settlers at the Jamestown Colony in Virginia and eventually marrying one of them.

  • Biography of Pocahontas
    Biography of Pocahontas from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma.
    A five page article about book reviews on Native women and how their roles and lives changed when English settlers arrived. Pocahontas is on the last two pages.
  • Reflecting on Pocahontas
    Read this short article about Pocahontas for information on her life.
  • Who was the real Pocahontas?
    Who was the real Pocahontas? Beyond the Disney movies and the novels told about her, who really was Pocahontas? This scholarly article attempts to answer the question.
  • When Fiction Wins: John Davis and the Emergence of a Romantic Pocahontas
    The story of Pocahontas has been told and retold countless times throughout the course of the past four hundred years. Each retelling has its own purpose, stemming from unique combinations of social, political, and artistic motivations. Virtually all Americans have been exposed to the narrative's key elements in some shape or form, but not because of schoolteachers or the story's inclusion in a history textbook. They are remembered because novelists, playwrights, poets, and, more recently, filmmakers have repeatedly appropriated and recreated the Pocahontas story in their own way. This trend, however, was not always so common.
  • Story of Pocahontas
    Primary source: The story of Pocahontas, her capture, the bargain for her return, and her marriage to John Rolfe as told by Raphe Hamor, Secretary of the Jamestown Colony
  • Images of Pocahontas
    Images of Pocahontas from Primary Analysis.
  • Essays on Pocahontas
    Different perspectives on Pocahontas and her role in history.
  • The abduction of Pocahontas
    An image of Pocahontas being abducted.
  • Pocahontas with the King of England
    Picture of Pocahontas at the Court of James from the Library of Congress.
  • Image of wedding
    An image of Rolfe and Pocahontas' wedding.
  • Interactive map of Jamestown
    From National Geographic comes this interactive map of Jamestown.
  • Biography of Pocahontas
    From the National Women's History Museum comes this biography of Pocahontas.
  • The Challenge of the Young Woman Pocahontas
    The woman who laced Pocahontas into English clothing in 1613 told visitors to Historic Jamestowne that the Powhatan woman couldn't stand the clothing at first.
  • Pocahontas
    Discusses the historical truth about native American maid Pocahontas. Impact of Pocahontas on American history; Chronicles about the maiden; Extraordinary qualities; Pocahontas in John Smith's record; Relation with English colonists; Conversion to Christianity; Trip to England; Death on the return trip to Virginia.

James Polk

James K. Polk, in full James Knox Polk   (born November 2, 1795, Mecklenburg county, North Carolina, U.S.—died June 15, 1849, Nashville, Tennessee), 11th president of the United States (1845–49). Under his leadership the United States fought the Mexican War (1846–48) and acquired vast territories along the Pacific coast and in the Southwest.

  • Biography of James Polk.
    Biography of James Polk from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of James K. Polk
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of James K. Polk.
  • James K. Polk: A Biographical Companion
    This A–Z encyclopedia provides a detailed overview of America's 11th president and connects Polk's public and personal life to his historical significance.

    In 1844, James K. Polk was not a promising presidential nominee—he was not popular, charismatic, or even well known. But by the time he left office in 1849, he had acquired the enormous Oregon Territory by negotiation and had taken by force more than half of Mexico's territory, an area of about 500,000 square miles.

    Yet Polk's territorial successes inspired the rancorous debate over whether slavery should be allowed in the new territories—a debate that ended in civil war. Modern critics charge that Polk's actions toward Mexico were amoral if not immoral. In this comprehensive examination of Polk's life and career, our 11th president emerges as a complex man and a skillful politician who pursued power relentlessly.
  • President James K. Polk's inaugural address, 1845.
    Presents the text of the James K. Polk's presidential inaugural address which was delivered in March 1845. Topic of Texas' annexation from the rest of the United States.
  • War with Mexico, 1846
    Backbroung information on the war with Mexico.
  • Book review of Polk and the Mexican War
    Read this review of a book called "A Country of Vast Designs: James K. Polk, the Mexican War and the Conquest of
    the American Continent," which explains Polk's role in the spreading of the United States west and southwest at the expense of Mexico.
  • James K. Polk and the war with Mexico
    The eleventh president of the United States, expansionist James K. Polk was eager to acquire New Mexico and California from Mexico. He deftly steered the United States into war with Mexico in 1846 and personally supervised U.S. operations, from dispersing secret agents to appointing generals and devising military strategy.
  • Polk's Peace
    This short article explains how Polk concluded peace with Mexico to end the Mexican war.
  • James Polk and the politics of slavery
    James Polk and his views on slavery guided his presidency. This is a 17 pages scholarly article.


From Prohibition was intended to improve, even to ennoble, the lives of all Americans, to protect individuals, families, and society at large from the devastating effects of alcohol abuse. But the enshrining of a faith-driven moral code in the Constitution paradoxically caused millions of Americans to rethink their definition of morality.

  • Introduction to Prohibition
    From Britannica, this is an introduction to Prohibition.
  • Overview of Prohibition
    Also from Britannica, this is an overview of prohibition.
  • Another overview of prohibition
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another overview of prohibition.
  • Prohibition
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another overview of prohibition.
  • The 18th Amendment
    This is an article on the 18th Amendment to the Constitution that implemented prohibition.
  • Natonal prohibition cases
    Seven cases, the most important of which was Rhode Island v. Palmer, challenging the constitutionality of the Eighteenth Amendment and the Volstead Act were grouped together in the National Prohibition Cases.
  • Drink in the United States, 1920-39
    From ABC-CLIO, this is an article that discusses drinking in the United States during these two decades.
  • A Capitol offense
    The article discusses U.S. bootlegger George Cassiday and his distribution of alcohol to members of the U.S. Congress during Prohibition. According to the article, Cassiday worked out of the U.S. House Office Building and U.S. Senate House Office Building. The article states that Cassiday wrote a story about his work in supplying members of Congress with alcohol in violation of the law for the newspaper the "Washington Post" in October 1930. The article also discusses spy Roger Butts and his role in attempting to trap Cassiday.
  • Prohibition
    From Digital History, this article is on prohibition.
  • A site on prohibition
    From Ohio State University, this is a site about prohibition. It is extensive.

Joseph Pulitzer

Joseph Pulitzer.

Joseph Pulitzer (1847-1911), Hungarian-born editor and publisher, was instrumental in developing yellow journalism in the United States.

Paul Revere

Paul Revere (born January 1, 1735, Boston, Massachusetts [U.S.]—died May 10, 1818, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.), folk hero of the American Revolution whose dramatic horseback ride on the night of April 18, 1775, warning Boston-area residents that the British were coming, was immortalized in a ballad by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.

Jacob Riis

Jacob Riis

Jacob August Riis's startling print and photographic exposés of conditions in New York City's slums influenced a generation of investigative reporters, known as muckrakers, and set the standard for future photojournalists.

John Rolfe

John Rolfe, (baptized May 6, 1585, Norfolk, England—died 1622?, Virginia [U.S.]), Virginia planter and colonial official who was the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the Indian chief Powhatan.

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt


Eleanor Roosevelt, in full Anna Eleanor Roosevelt   (born Oct. 11, 1884, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Nov. 7, 1962, New York City), American first lady (1933–45), the wife ofFranklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd president of the United States, and a United Nations diplomat and humanitarian. She was, in her time, one of the world’s most widely admired and powerful women.

  • Biography of Eleanor Roosevelt
    From Britannica, this is a biography of Eleanor Roosevelt.
  • Another biography of Eleanor Roosevelt
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Eleanor Roosevelt.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt
    Eleanor Roosevelt was the first wife of a president to use her unique position to fight for the rights of minorities, women, and the destitute. After her husband died, she expanded her responsibilities, playing an important role in the fledgling United Nations.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt: civil rights and liberties
    Eleanor Roosevelt began her social activism very early and made it a lifetime pursuit to strive for advances in civil rights and fight violations of civil liberties.
  • A profile of Eleanor Roosevelt
    Profiles Eleanor Roosevelt. The suggestion that she is the most influential First Lady in United States history; Her role in leading the battle for social justice; Biographical details; Her political activism; Her marriage to distant cousin and former President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
  • Another profile of Eleanor Roosevelt
    Profiles former First Lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt. Family background; Childhood memories; Educational attainment; Career as First Lady; Married life with Franklin Roosevelt; Awards and achievements received; Contributions to the American government. INSETS: FDR's polio.;The Roosevelt children..
  • Eleanor Roosevelt's Contribution to the Presidency
    The article describes the experiences and social contributions of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt during the term of her husband former U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt and the Declaration of Human Rights.
    Focuses on the contribution of Eleanor Roosevelt, wife of former United States President Franklin Roosevelt in the United Nations (UN). Nomination as a delegate to the General Assembly; Election as chair person of the Human Rights Commission; Adoption of universal declaration of human rights by General Assembly.
  • Franklin & Eleanor: No ordinary couple.
    Presents an interview with Doris Kearns Goodwin, author of the book `No Ordinary Time; Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II.' Views on the partnership between Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt during World War II; Public awareness into their relationship; Roosevelt's political beliefs; Character of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt.

Theodore Roosevelt

Theodore Roosevelt

Although largely opposed by the political establishment, Theodore Roosevelt fought to give the common citizen "a square deal." Many of his ideas for reform, considered radical in their day, have become accepted. An avowed nationalist with imperialist leanings, he also transformed the United States into a major international and military power. He brought both the presidency and the nation into the 20th century.

  • Biography of Theodore Roosevelt
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of Theodore Roosevelt.
  • Another biography of Theodore Roosevelt
    This biography places the emphasis on Theodore Roosevelt's life as an environmentalist.
  • Another biography of Theodore Roosevelt
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Theodore Roosevelt.
  • History of Conservation in the United States
    From Habitats and Ecosystems: An Encyclopedia of Endangered America, a short article on the history of conservation in the United States.
  • Conservation and the environment
    American concern for the environment flourished during the 20th century as environmentalism became one of the most powerful social movements of the century. Faced with the prospect of environmental disasters both at home and abroad, Americans reevaluated the way they used natural resources, how they impacted the world around them, and what role the government should play in protecting the environment.
  • Another biography of Theodore Roosevelt
    From Britannica, this is another biography of Theodore Roosevelt.
  • American Museum of Natural History Celebrates Conservation President.
    The article discusses the celebration of the legacy of Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th U.S. president who is known as the Conservation President, with the reopening of a two-story memorial at American Museum of Natural History located at the Central Park West, New York City. It describes the renovation and refurbishment of the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial by a team of artists, conservators, taxidermists and designers.

Jonas Salk

Jonas Salk, in full Jonas Edward Salk   (born October 28, 1914, New York, New York, U.S.—died June 23, 1995, La Jolla, California), American physician and medical researcher who developed the first safe and effective vaccine for polio.

John Smith

John Smith, (baptized January 6, 1580, Willoughby, Lincolnshire, England—died June 21, 1631, London), English explorer and early leader of the Jamestown Colony, the first permanent English settlement in North America. Smith played an equally important role as a cartographer and a prolific writer who vividly depicted the natural abundance of the New World, whetting the colonizing appetite of prospective English settlers.

  • Biography of John Smith
    Biography of John Smith from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of John Smith
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of John Smith.
  • Rise and Promise in John Smith's Virginia
    Early in 1609, with Jamestown on the verge of starvation and relations with the Powhatan Indians deteriorating, John Smith led his men on a desperate, often violent canvass for food.
  • A survey of John Smith's life
    This is a great and lengthy overview of the life of John Smith.
  • John Smith's Background
    A short article on the life of John Smith before he sailed for Virginia.
  • Beyond Jamestown
    The article considers Captain John Smith's exploration and discovery of Jamestown, Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay. The 400th anniversary of Smith's voyage will be celebrated May 11-13, 2007 with a visit from Queen Elizabeth II of England. Smith's assignment from the Virginia Company of London to search for gold, silver and the Northwest Passage is described. The author reports on the current day status of the Chesapeake Bay while tracing the path taken by Captain Smith and his men. The expedition's voyage is described with mention of those Smith encountered, their travel difficulties with the weather and regions they discovered. The author reports on modern day pollution, human development and the near extinction of the Chesapeake based Nanticoke Indians.
  • Captain John Smith: the Yeoman Background.
    Presents information on Captain John Smith of Virginia. Insights into the family background of Smith; Description of his house in Willoughby, Lincolnshire in England; Discussion of how his family's income and way of life contributed to his career growth.
  • John Smith
    Focuses on John Smith's exploration of Chesapeake Bay in 1607. Smith's life in colonial Jamestown, Virginia; Efforts to create a good relationship with the local Algonquin Indians; Distance Smith and his crew traveled during their explorations; Goal of the expeditions to find gold, silver, or a route to Asia.
  • Captain John Smith
    This article presents a profile of 17th century colonial Captain John Smith. During his tenure at the Jamestown Colony he was reviled, twice sentenced to hang, and eventually elected president, military commander and the political leader of British America. The author notes how Smith's offensive character traits of bullying and bravado may be largely responsible for the survival of the colony both in negotiating with the Powhatan Indians and the disorganized settlers.

Elizabeth C. Stanton

Photograph:Elizabeth Cady Stanton.

American leader in the women's rights movement who in 1848 formulated the first organized demand for woman suffrage in the United States.

  • Biography of Elizabeth Stanton
    From Britannica, this is a biography of Elizabeth Stanton.
  • Another biography of Elilzabeth Stanton
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of Elizabeth Stanton.
  • One more biography of Elizabeth Stanton
    From ABC-CLIO, this is another biography of Elizabeth Stanton.
  • Background information on Women's Rights in the 19th century
    This article provides excellent background information on women's rights and issues in the 19th century.
  • More information on Elizabeth Stanton
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of the primary organizers of the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, an early proponent of woman suffrage, and among the foremost leaders of the nineteenth-century women’s rights movement.
  • Elizabeth Stanton's life
    Pays tribute to Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a nineteenth-century American orator, writer, and organizer. Stanton's belief on orthodox religion as the prime oppressor of women; Family background; Turning point in Stanton's intellectual development.
  • Wisdom, Goodness and Power: Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the History of Woman Suffrage.
    In the first three volumes of the History of Woman Suffrage, Elizabeth Cady Stanton and her co-authors crafted a rhetorical history that not only celebrated Stanton's role in the suffrage movement, but also promoted her broader, more radical vision of complete gender equality. In the context of a movement divided over strategy, Stanton and her editors made the case not just for the vote, but for expanding the role of women in all realms of American social and political life. Documenting the contributions of women since the Revolution, the History advocated the full political and legal "sovereignty" of women by showing how their wisdom, goodness, and power had contributed to the nation's progress.
  • The Seneca Falls declaration.
    Presents the text of the Seneca Falls declaration written by Elizabeth Cady Stanton in 1848. Tyranny of men over women; Proofs of this tyranny; Demands for equal treatment.
  • `To educate women into rebellion': Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the creation of a transatlantic movement
    Focuses on suffragist movements in the United States in the 19th century. Emphasis on coverture's equal importance with enfranchisement; Full citizenship of women; Militancy as a direct import to the United States from Great Britain; Supporter of women's rights; National manners and conventions.

Harry S. Truman

From Britannica: Harry S. Truman,  (born May 8, 1884, Lamar, Missouri, U.S.—died December 26, 1972, Kansas City, Missouri), 33rd president of the United States (1945–53), who led his nation through the final stages of World War II and through the early years of the Cold War, vigorously opposing Soviet expansionism in Europe and sending U.S. forces to turn back a communist invasion of South Korea.

Vietnam War

The Vietnam War involved many protagonists, including the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the Viet Cong.

  • Overview of the Vietnam War
    From ABC-CLIO, this is an overview of the Vietnam War, including the role of the Viet Cong.
  • The Viet Cong
    From Britannica: Viet Cong (VC), in full Viet Nam Cong San,
    the guerrilla force that, with the support of the North Vietnamese Army, fought against South Vietnam (late 1950s–1975) and the United States (early 1960s–1973). The name is said to have first been used by South Vietnamese Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem to belittle the rebels.
  • The National Liberation Front
    From Britannica, this is an entry on the National Liberation Front, the political arm of the Viet Cong.
  • Under Viet Cong control
    Describes the author's experiences as a correspondent to the Vietnam war. Challenges faced; Factors that make the Viet Cong the most resilient enemy that U.S. troops have ever faced; Change in the nature of the war.
  • The faceless Viet Cong
    The article focuses on role of the Viet Cong in the Vietnam conflict.
  • The first American to be captured by the Viet Cong
    A POW's story: Dillon veteran first American captured by Viet Cong
  • Vietnam: Crisis of indecision
    The article analyzes the U.S. policy toward Asia, following its deployment of troops in Vietnam in 1965.
  • My son in Vietnam
    Provides information on the experiences of a U.S. soldier in the Vietnam War. Challenges faced by the soldier in the war; Strategies applied by U.S. soldiers in the war; Encounters of the soldiers with the Viet Cong.
  • The Viet Cong
    Armed Forces Information and Education document on knowing your enemy.
  • Che Guevara's thoughts on Guerilla Warfare
    This site provides an overview of Che Guevara's thoughts on guerilla warfare

George Washington

George Washington, also called Father of His Country (born February 22, 1732, Westmoreland county, Virginia [U.S.]—died December 14, 1799, Mount Vernon, Virginia, U.S.), American general and commander in chief of the colonial armies in the American Revolution (1775–83) and subsequently first president of the United States (1789–97).

  • Biography of George Washington
    Biography of George Washington from Encyclopedia Britannica.
  • Another biography of George Washington
    From Biography in Context, this is another biography of George Washington.
  • Founding Friendships
    Washington has been called the Revolution's 'Indispensable Man'. If you took him out of the equation, then most likely the American Revolution would have failed. Yet, none of the so-called 'great collaborations' that historians have written about includes Washington, whose friendship with James Madison was the most important association in the founding of the United States.
  • George Washington and the Revolunationary Era
    An opinion piece on what George Washington meant to the Revolutionary era.
  • 10 Things You Should Know About George Washington
    Here are ten things you should know about George Washington and his importance in American history.
  • `Mr. President'… George Washington's new clothes.
    Discusses the administration of former United States President George Washington. Constitutional precedents which originated during his administration; Description of his inauguration; Organization of the U.S. system of government; His major achievements as president; His personal qualities, which ultimately informed the office of President of the U.S.
  • The Reluctant President
    The article discusses the election and inauguration of U.S. President George Washington, exploring his reluctance to serve. It examines his journey from Virginia to New York City for his inauguration, commenting on his reception in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and Trenton, New Jersey. The author explores the swearing-in ceremony, the oath of office, and later U.S. President James Madison's role in writing Washington's inaugural address. Other topics include politician Charles Thomson and Washington's commentary on U.S. national unity.
  • It takes a lifetime of self-improvement to become a man like Washington.
    The article explores the moral conduct and personality of U.S. president George Washington. The author reflects on the development of his personal virtue during his military career and leadership of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. Topics include infertility in his marriage, Washington's deceptive behavior to acquire land claims, and his love of wealth.
  • George Washington, Slave Master
    Deals with the last will and testament of U.S. President George Washington which spelled out his directions for freeing his slaves in the U.S. in 1799. Condition given by Washington in freeing the slaves; Factors which changed the attitude of Washington towards slavery; Efforts done by Washington to stop slavery in the country.
  • George Washington's leadership of Congress: Director or facilitator?
    Examines the political leadership of George Washington, first president of the United States of America. Nature of presidential leadership; Emergence of Washington as a hero; Party leadership; Legislative skills.

White Mountains Art (influence on environmentalism)

Wright Brothers

Brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright changed the course of the nineteenth century and beyond with their revolutionary invention, the airplane. There is no area of political or social life that remains untouched by the airplane, a technological concept conceived and developed by two inventors with little formal training.

  • A biography of the Wright brothers
    From Biography in Context, this is a biography of the Wright brothers.
  • Another biography of the Wright brothers
    From Britannica, this is another biography of the Wright brothers.
  • How The Wright Brothers Blew It
    This story in Forbes describe how the Wright Brothers lost their monopoly on airplanes due to poor business decisions.
  • The Unlikely Fight Over First in Flight
    A story from Time Magazine about the Wright Brothers.
  • Invention of the Airplane
    This document describes the process of inventing the airplane.
  • Wilbur and Orville Wright
    Another biography of the Wright brothers.
  • The first family of flight
    If their father had been a kinder and less demanding person, the Wright brothers might have married, led conventional lives and never even experimented with flight.
  • The Wright Brothers
    Describes the development of powered human flight by Wilbur and Orville Wright. Their work at the Wright Cycle Co., in Dayton, Ohio; Their background; Wilbur's dream of a full-size flying machine; The wind tunnel they built to test airfoils; Their first unmanned gliders; The flight on December 17, 1903, in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina; The airplane as a cultural force which revolutionized peace and war
  • Wright brothers got too much credit.
    Those oddball brothers and their flying machine, Insight Sept. 12 The Wrights did not solely invent practical aircraft. The airplane as we know it evolved through history in many forms, with some patents for flight controls being taken out in the mid 1800s.
  • The Wright stuff
    The author describes the first ever flight made by brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright on the morning of December 17, 1903. The Wright brothers rose and dressed in suits and rolled their flying machine to a track on the morning. Darrell Collins, the historian at Wright Brothers National Memorial, says that Wilbur tried to pump up the witnesses to get them to jump up and down.

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