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Eckert - Psychology Literature  

Articles published on several different topics in psychology.
Last Updated: Dec 5, 2016 URL: Print Guide RSS Updates

Psychologists Print Page


  • Gender differences between cultures
  • Sleep differences between athletes and non athletes
  • Lasting relationships
  • Narcissistic personality disorder
  • Impact of social media on behavior
  • Subjectivity to conformity
  • Differences between honor and general education students and mental disorders
  • Connection between stress and mental illness

    Citation and Plagiarism Resources on the Internet



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    Online Resources

    • ABC-CLIO
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    Conformity studies

    Connection between stress and mental illness

    Drug addiction

    • Psychology & Behavioral Health: Substance use disorders
      Substance use disorders include the formal medical diagnoses of substance abuse and substance dependence for many types of drugs of abuse, including alcohol and prescription drugs. These disorders are characterized by recurrent problems in everyday life and physical or emotional distress and impairment that are caused or exacerbated by the use of the substances of abuse.
    • Health Reference Center: Addiction
      A pattern of lifestyle that revolves around obtaining and using drugs. The behaviors of this pattern are compulsive and difficult to resist or overcome, particularly when there is physical drug dependence. However, addiction can occur with nearly any substance (such as drugs, alcohol, and tobacco) or behavior (such as gambling) that a person feels he or she cannot live without and is willing to take substantial risks to keep the substance or behavior part of everyday life.
    • Health Reference Center: Drug addiction
      Psychological dependence on the use of a chemical substance or activity. Some individuals develop addictions to alcohol, caffeine, tobacco, narcotics and some sedatives, many of which are prescribed by physicians.
    • Health Reference Center: More on drug addiction
      A pattern of lifestyle that revolves around obtaining and using drugs. The behaviors of this pattern are compulsive and difficult to resist or overcome, particularly when there is physical drug dependence.
    • Ebscohost:Suicide Risk in College Students: The Effects of Internet Addiction and Drug Use
      This study aims to identify the factors in suicide risk among college students by examining the direct and indirect effects of drug use, internet addiction, gender, and alcohol use on suicide risk.
    • Ebscohost:The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions
      Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and pre- dicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers.
    • Drug Addiction: Which Comes First- Brain or Behavior- and Does it Matter?
      Recent scientific research has shown significant causal relationships between drug addiction and genetic predisposition as well as between addiction and environmental factors. Both genetics and the environment influence the brain, which in turn effects the behavior of usage.

    Differences between honor and general education students and mental disorders

    Eye witness testimony

    • The Problem with Eyewitness Testimony
      Stanford Law School, April 5, 1999. In a presentation sponsored by the Stanford Journal of Legal Studies, George Fisher placed Barbara Tversky’s research on memory fallibility into the context of police investigations and jury verdicts, discussing the relevance of such research to our system of justice.
    • Ebscohost: Introduction to this Issue: Children’s Eyewitness Memory and Testimony in Context
      Researchers to share their expertise and contribute current studies about the role of contextual factors on children’s eyewitness memory and testimony, and related matters. Topics cover a wide variety of issues pertaining to child witnesses and victims, including the reliability of chil- dren’s testimony, forensic interview techniques, participation in court proceedings, pro- spective juror-decision making, delays in prosecution, and religion-related abuse.
    • Ebscohost: The Counterintuitive Relationship between Conceptual and Perceptual Similarities and Eyewitness Suggestibility
      The tendency to confuse witnessed and suggested information can result in inaccurate eyewitness testimonies and convictions of innocent people. Studies that tested how similarities between witnessed and suggested information affect the tendency to confuse them reached inconsistent results. Here, we claim that there is a more complex and not necessarily linear relationship between similarity and memory distortions.
    • Ebscohost: A Survey of Federal and State Standards for the Admission of Expert Testimony on the ReUability of Eyewitnesses
      Developments in forensic testing have established beyond any doubt that eyewitness testimony has the potential to be dangerously unreliable, and eyewitness misidentification remains the leading cause of false convictions in the United States.
    • Ebscohost: When Eyewitnesses Talk
      When two people witness an event, they often discuss it. Because memory is not perfect, sometimes this discussion includes errors. One person’s errors can become part of another person’s account, and this proliferation of error can lead to miscarriages of justice. In this article, we describe the social and cognitive processes involved. Re- search shows how people combine information about their own memory with other people’s memories based on factors such as confidence, perceived expertise, and the social cost of disagreeing with other people. We describe the implications of this research for eyewitness testimony.

    Gender Differences Between Cultures

    • Alcoholic Beverages, Gender and European Cultures
      Societies vary on how they view alcoholic beverages and their use. These views affect use patterns. One indicator of a society’s view on alcohol use may be the way it considers the relationship between women and alcoholic beverages, be it marked with moral stigma or with the relevance that women have in controlling the drinking behaviour of men. Europe has experienced substantial social changes in recent years including attitudinal and behavioural changes regarding alcohol use. This study discusses the use of alcohol in Northern and Southern Europe with an emphasis on women’s alcohol use both historically and currently. Recent research on gender variations in alcohol use and its implications for treatment and prevention efforts in Europe is discussed.
    • Gender Segregation in Early-Childhood Social Play among the Bofi Foragers and Bofi Farmers in Central Africa
      Gender segregation in early-childhood social play is a pervasive pattern in North America, and child-development scholars have suggested it is a human universal. But very few researchers have looked at gender segregation in small-scale societies, particularly those of hunter-gatherers, whom the authors here call foragers. The authors present their observations of fifty-six, one- to four-year-old children living in two small-scale cultures--Bofi farmers and Bofi foragers--in Central Africa. They examined gender and age variation in the social play of these two groups and found that three- to four-year-olds became more segregated by gender than one- to two-year-olds and that boys in particular showed a tendency to play with other boys. The authors also found that cultural differences became more manifest as gender segregation grew more prominent among the children of Bofi farmers than Bofi foragers.
    • Gender Differences on Eighth Grade Mathematics Items: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of the United States and Spain
      Rather than describe mean gender differences in mathematics across different cultures, this study instead focused on an in-depth item analysis across two countries, the United States and Spain. The purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences on multiple-choice mathematics items across two countries by using the data gathered in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Although there were no mean gender differences on the total scores in the United States as there were in Spain, micro-level analysis of item characteristics must be considered when interpreting results. Even within categories, the direction of gender differences varied depending on other characteristics of the item. It was concluded that item difficulty was indeed related to gender differences in both countries.
    • Balancing Act: Addressing Culture and Gender in ESL Classrooms
      ESL educators find themselves teaching a diverse group of students in today's classroom. This study investigated how ESL instructors address diversity in their teaching. The literature review revealed research on the experiences of teachers using culturally responsive teaching strategies. Using qualitative research methods, this study explores the participants' subjective teaching experiences in-depth. The findings revealed particular themes related to the instructional strategies and challenges encountered when teaching culture and gender. The findings suggest ESL instructors must take an active role in creating activities, exercises and curriculum that contribute to an inclusive learning environment that empower their students inside and outside the classroom.
      A fourteen-item Likert survey in Russia and the United States was used to discover if there is a common conception of romantic love and if there are national or gender variations. Evolutionary, cultural, and popular literature on love suggests that males and female differ in their conception of romantic love and its relation to sex. But what is the relationship (if any) in similarities and differences between these national cultures and between genders. Research results showed a strong overall agreement on a common core that include s altruism, intrusive thinking, and emotional fulfillment. Also, there were national and gender differences, with nation having a stronger effect on the conception of romantic love than does gender.
    • Do men and women really shop differently? An exploration of gender differences in mall shopping in India
      This study explores mall-shopping habits in India and attempts to identify and contrast possible differences between genders using a sample of 2721 mall consumers across seven cities. While the findings suggest that in India there are significant differences in shopping behaviour that can be ascribed to gender, there are fundamental questions about stereotyping of shopping as a feminine activity. To do this, discriminant analysis has been used to study whether shopping orientation and mall-shopping attitudes can discriminate between male and female shoppers.

    Honesty and lying

    • From Psychology & Behavioral Health: Deception and lying
      Although universal and ubiquitous in human social interaction, deception and lying can become problematic and need to be treated as a psychological condition either when the patient is unable to differentiate between the truth and lying or when the behavior becomes pervasive.
    • Ebscohost:Beliefs about Lying and Spreading of Dishonesty
      Field experiments have shown that observing other people littering, stealing or lying can trigger own misconduct, leading to a decay of social order. However, a large extent of norm violations goes undetected. Hence, the direction of the dynamics crucially depends on actors’ beliefs regarding undetected transgressions.
    • Ebscohost: Follow the liar: the effects of adult lies on children’s honesty
      Recent research shows that most adults admit they lie to children. We also know that children learn through modeling and imitation. To date there are no published studies that examine whether lying to children has an effect on children’s honesty. We aimed to bridge the gap in this literature by examining the effects of adults’ lies on elementary and preschool-aged children’s behavior using a modified temptation resistance paradigm, in which children are tempted to peek at a toy they have been told not to look at, and later given a chance to either admit peeking, or try to conceal their transgression by lying.
    • Ebscohost: Parenting by lying
      The present set of studies identifies the phenomenon of ‘parenting by lying’, in which parents lie to their children as a means of influencing their emotional states and behaviour

    Impact of social media on behavior


    Lasting Relationships

    Narcissistic personality disorder

    Narcissistic personality disorder is a condition in which people have an excessive sense of self-importance, an extreme preoccupation with themselves, and lack of empathy for others.


    • Psychology & Behavioral Health: Sociopaths
      Sociopathy is a condition that describes a constellation of interpersonal, emotional, and behavioral functioning that is marked by deceit, lack of guilt and empathy, and callous disregard for the welfare of others. Contrary to popular conception, sociopaths are not necessarily violent, nor is there good evidence that they are untreatable.
    • Antisociality and the Construct of Psychopathy: Data From Across the Globe
      The current article draws on previously published large North American studies, as well as data from across the globe, to estimate the strength and pattern of the associations between overt antisociality and other psychopathic domains in a diverse set of samples.
    • Psychopathy and Personality: Advances and Debates
      This article reviews five advances and areas of agreement that are highlighted across the articles, including the utility of trait perspectives to psychopathy, the emergence of a prototypical trait profile of psychopathy, the importance of recognizing earlier developmental manifestations of psychopathy, the ongoing study and revelation of the basic neural underpinnings of psychopathy, and the important theoretical and empirical association between psychopathy and antisocial behavior
    • Relationship Between Psychopathy, Aggression, Anger, Impulsivity, and Intermittent Explosive Disorder
      Intermittent explosive disorder epresents a disorder of recurrent, problematic, reactive aggressive behavior that, over the lifetime, affects about 5–6% of individuals in the United States. While aggression is also observed in those with psychopathic personality, aggression in this context is frequently proactive rather than reactive, and neurobiological study suggests important differences between those with proactive aggression/psychopathy and those with reactive aggression.
    • Mafia and psychopathy
      In popular culture, Mafia members are often portrayed as ruthless, callous and remorseless, but there is no empirical research on their personality traits. The goal of this research was to examine levels of psychopathic traits among Mafia members who have been convicted of a criminal offense.
    • Testing theoretical models for future clinical practice in the treatment of psychopathy
      This article presents information on the tendency toward parental overprotection or control. Attachment patterns characterized with neglect (lack of community) and affectionless control (lack of agency) were reported in more than half of the study’s parental population. About 50% of the offenders were diagnosed with affective problems, and testing revealed high levels of immature defense. The possibility of a link between empirical findings and clinical theories provides therapists with knowledge that might be crucial for future treatment of psychopathy.
    • Cold-blooded lie catchers? An investigation of psychopathy, emotional processing, and deception detection
      The process of catching liars is challenging, though evidence suggests that deception detection abilities are influenced by the characteristics of the judge. This study examined individual differences in emotional processing and levels of psychopathic traits on the ability to judge the veracity of written narratives varying in emotional valence.
    • Psychopaths, Incorrigible Racists, and the Faces of Responsibility
      Psychopaths pose a puzzle. The pleasure they take in the pain of others suggests that they are the paradigms of blameworthiness, while their psychological in- capacities provide them with paradigm excuses on plausible accounts of moral responsibility. I begin by assessing two influential responses: one that claims that psychopaths are morally blameworthy in one sense and not in another, and one that takes the two senses of blameworthiness to be inseparable. I offer a new argument that psychopaths, as understood in the debate, are blameworthy in neither sense, while showing how the two senses of blameworthiness nevertheless come apart.
    • Psychopaths and blame: The argument from content
      The recent debate over the moral responsibility of psychopaths has centered on whether, or in what sense, they understand moral requirements. In this paper, I argue that even if they do understand what morality requires, the content of their actions is not of the right kind to justify full-blown blame
    • Hungry like the wolf: A word-pattern analysis of the language of psychopaths
      This study used statistical text analysis to examine the features of crime narratives provided by psychopathic homicide offenders. Psychopathic speech was predicted to reflect an instrumental/predatory world view, unique socioemotional needs, and a poverty of affect.
    • Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths: A Neurobiological Model
      Despite increasing interest in psychopathy research, surprisingly little is known about the etiology of non-incarcerated, successful psychopaths. This review provides an analysis of current knowledge on the similarities and differences between successful and unsuccessful psychopaths derived from five population sources: community samples, individuals from employment agencies, college students, industrial psycho- paths, and serial killers.

    Sleep Differences Between Athletes and Non-Athletes

    • Sleep of athletes - problems and possible solutions.
      Human performances are highly dependent on one of the main biological rhythms, namely the sleep–wake rhythm. This rhythm is driven by the living clock and is functional in the adaptation to day–night differences in the environment. The athlete, like all humans, is set up to be awake and in good shape to exercise during the day, and to sleep and recover during the night.
    • Why elite athletes, CEO's, even rock stars, are going deep on sleep.
      Thanks to sleep specialists like Harvard's Charles A. Czeisler, Ph.D., M.D., everyone from the Portland Trail Blazers to the Rolling Stones are manipulating their slumber to their advantage
    • Mental stress and exercise training response: stress-sleep connection may b...
      Ruuska and colleagues (2012) showed that individual resp
      onses to exercise training may vary as a function of the baseline self-rated mental stress among healthy volunteers after a highly controlled aerobic training intervention. The changes in fitness were poor or absent in the subjects who
      reported their psychological resources as low and reported having a lot of stressors in their lives prior to the intervention. The authors presented some potential mechanisms that could explain their finding s, highlighting the role of stress-related hormonal changes in the training response. Our brief comment aims to contribute to the discussion by adding a complementary explanation that could help to clarify these interesting findings.
    • Z's=W's
      Want to max out your performance? Take a nap.
    • Frequency of Nightmares and Gender Significantly Predict Distressing Dreams...
      Important sports events are highlights and stressful situations in every athlete’s career. This stress might alter the dream content of athletes and consequently evoke disturbed dreaming. In this study, the authors asked 840 German athletes from various sports about distressing dreams on the nights before an important competition or game. About 15% of the athletes stated that they experienced at least 1 distressing dream before an important competition or game during the preceding 12 months. An almost equal number of athletes reported at least 1 distressing dream in their sports career. With respect to the base rate, in about 3% of the events a distressing dream occurred. Reported dream content referred mainly to athletic failure. The main risk factor for an athlete experiencing a distressing dream before a competition appears to be the frequency of experienced nightmares in general.
    • Sleep Quality and Quantity of Portland State Intercollegiate Student-Athletes - A Case Study
      According to the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) rulebook, student-athletes are limited to 20 hours/week of official athletic activity. While this in and of itself is not a huge time commitment, when it is combined with the academic expectations that come with being a college student and athletic activities that are not included in the 20 hours/week, there isn’t much time left in the week for student-athletes to get everything done. In addition to imposing daily stress, such time demands may
      negatively affect sleep. This study examined the sleep quality and quantity of student-athletes, as well as how much time they spend on athletic and academic activities.
    • The Encyclopedia of Sleep and Sleep Disorders
      Click on links at the top of the article for more articles on the subject from the Encyclopedia of Sleep and Sleep Disorders.

    Sports psychology

    • Psychology & Behavioral Health: Sports psychology
      Involvement in sports as a participant or spectator serves similar psychological functions for individuals: Both help people create and maintain a positive self-concept, allow them to feel a sense of membership in social groups, and provide pleasant stimulation.
    • Does Goal Orientation Matter For Trait Anxiety, Self-Efficacy and Performance?
      In recent years, goal orientations have been examined in their relationship with other potential determinants of athletic performance. The relevant research showed that task orientation, compared to ego orientation, is linked to more adaptive outcomes. However, the relationship among goal orientations, anxiety, self-efficacy, and performance has not been fully researched in the sports context. Therefore, the purpose o f this research was to reveal the relationship among goal orientations, trait anxiety, self-efficacy, and performance.
    • Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs and Goal Orientation In Young Athletes
      The aim of this study was to investigate whether a relationship exists between the satisfaction of basic psychological needs and goal orientation, as well as to examine the contribution of these needs to goal orientation in young athletes
    • Coaches, Athletes, and Dominance Profiles in Sport: Addressing the Learning Styles of Athletes to Improve Performance
      The purpose of this article is to examine the background and purpose of using dominance profiles to assist coaches in determining learning preferences for themselves and their athletes. Dominance profiles can provide information that will help coaches understand the differences in how athletes think, act, and learn. Dominance profiles can help coaches anticipate how students will respond in different sport situations. Learning inefficiencies can be addressed and strategies can be developed to enable athletes to adequately learn to process all types of information without undue stress. This paper's focus is on the practical application of dominance profiles in coaching that can positively affect placement and positioning of athletes, teaching for skill enhancement, and the impact of dominance on athletic performance.
    • The relationship of basic need satisfaction, motivational climate and personality to well-being and stress patterns among elite athletes
      This study investigated whether need satisfaction, need dissatisfaction, motivational climate, perfectionism and self-esteem relate to athletes’ discrete profiles of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being and perceived stress.
    • Nerves of steel? Stress, work performance and elite athletes
      This articles empirically investigates the relationship between stress and performance, in an extreme pressure situation.
    • Achievement Goals and Physical Self-Perceptions of Adolescent Athletes
      The relationship between achievement goals and physical self-perceptions of adolescent athletes was examined in this study. Results showed that female athletes' mastery- avoidance scores were higher than male athletes.
    • Neurofeedback for Peak Performance Training
      This article will discuss the benefits and applications o f neurofeedback for peak performance training and the importance o f assessment to create effective training programs.

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